Abstract: IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common primary glomerulonephritis all over the world. Once considered as a benign disease, today the scientific community is aware that a significant percentage of patients eventually progress to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). The rate of progression is often very slow. Since 1980s, several therapeutic attempts have been made with steroids. Despite different molecules, doses, and lengths of treatment, the majority of uncontrolled and controlled studies found benefits in terms of proteinuria reduction and reduction of the risk of ESKD. This was obtained with reasonable safety and tolerability, especially when steroids are given at relatively low dose and for a period not exceeding 6 months. Recently, two randomized controlled trials have questioned the efficacy and safety of steroid therapy in IgAN. However, these trials have many drawbacks that are to be considered when interpreting the findings.
Keywords: IgA nephropathy, proteinuria, steroids, progression, end-stage kidney disease, budesonide
Abstract: The consumption of dietary salt has significantly increased globally, especially in the developed countries. High dietary salt intake has been linked to onset and complications in hypertension with a dimorphism tendency. There is scanty information about the influence of high salt diet on the immune cell population and androgen level in circulation. Male Sprague–Dawley rats of 8 weeks old were used for this study. They were divided into control (fed 0.1% salted feed) and salt-loaded groups (fed 8% salted feed) for 8 weeks. All experimental rats were allowed access to clean drinking water; daily feed consumption was measured in addition to weekly weight. On confirmation of hypertension using PowerLab® data acquisitions system, the rats were sacrificed and blood samples were collected into EDTA and sterile sample bottles. EDTA-blood samples were used for white blood cell and CD4 counts while the serum was used for hormonal assays. All salt-loaded rats became hypertensive, with a significant increase in total white blood cell, lymphocyte, neutrophil, monocyte, and CD4 cell counts. However, the eosinophil count was significantly decreased in salt-loaded rats. This study showed no change in the serum testosterone in salt-loaded male rats compared with control. In summary, dietary salt loading while precipitating hypertension also activated increased production of white blood cells and CD4 cells without any change in the serum testosterone level.
Keywords: dietary salt, immunity, differential white blood cell, lymphocytes, CD4, Sprague–Dawley rats
Abstract: Behavioral disturbances are observed in most patients suffering from diabetes. According to some evidence, pro-inflammatory cytokines have a key role both in diabetes and behavioral disorders, such as anxiety and depression. In this study, the effect of chronic administration of loganin, as a bioflavonoid, was investigated on pro-inflammatory cytokines and depression- and anxiety-like behaviors in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male Wistar rats. Blood levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were assessed by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay method. Depression- and anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated by forced swimming test (FST), elevated plus maze (EPM), and open field test (OFT), respectively. Body weight was also measured before the interventions and after the experiments in all groups. Our findings show that loganin-treated animals had significantly lower serum concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α compared with the diabetic group. In the EPM test, loganin treatment significantly increased the percentage of the open arm time and open arm entries. Moreover, loganin treatment significantly decreased the grooming time and restored distance traveled and center crossing in the OFT. However, it decreased immobility time in the FST. Loganin treatment also significantly restored body weight gain and attenuated blood glucose changes in the diabetic rats. These results indicate that loganin possibly alleviates depression- and anxiety-like behaviors associated with diabetes through lowering the blood glucose and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. More research is required to show the exact mechanism of antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of loganin in diabetes.
Keywords: diabetes, anxiety, depression, loganin, IL-6, TNF-α
Abstract: This study examined the effects of aliskiren (Ali) (direct renin inhibitor) on serum cardiac enzymes (LDH and CK-MB), electrocardiography (ECG) changes, myocardial oxidative stressmarkers (MDA, CAT, and GSH) and the expression of Bcl2, HO-1, and Nrf2 genes in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI). A total of 40 male albino rats were allocated into four groups, (1) normal control (NC) group, (2) Ali group (rats received Ali at 10mg/kg/day p.o. for 5 days), (3) ISO group (rats received ISO 150 mg/kg i.p. for two consecutive days at 24 h intervals), and (4) Ali + ISO group (rats received ISO + Ali at 10 mg/kg/day p.o. for 5 days from the 2nd dose of ISO). ISO group showed significant rise in serum cardiac enzymes (CK-MB and LDH), myocardial damage scores, myocardial MDA, HO-1, myocardial Nrf2 expression with significant reduction in myocardial antioxidants (CAT and GSH), and Bcl2 expression compared to the normal group (p < 0.05). ECG showed ST segment elevation, prolonged QT interval and QRS complex, and increased heart rate in ISO group. Co-administration of Ali and ISO caused significant increase in cardiac enzymes and morphology with increase in MDA, serum K, and creatinine with significant decrease in Bcl2, HO-1, and Nrf2 without significant changes in ECG parameters compared to ISO group.We concluded that low dose of Ali seems to exacerbate the myocardial injury in ISO-MI, which might be due to the enhanced oxidative stress and apoptosis.
Keywords: aliskiren, isoproterenol, myocardial infarction, rats, HO-1, Nrf2, Bcl2
Abstract: Background and aims: Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is one of the most common causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The most important cause of death among ADPKD patients is cardiovascular (CV). The aim of this study was to examine the prognostic significance of arterial stiffness on CV and renal outcomes in ADPKD. Methods: A total of 55 patients with ADPKD were examined. Pulse wave velocity was determined and stiffness index (SIDVP) was calculated. Combined primary endpoints (CV and renal) were major CV events (myocardial infarction, stroke, and CV intervention) as CV endpoints, and attaining of ESRD or start of renal replacement therapy as renal endpoints. Secondary endpoints were CV or renal endpoints separately. Results: The mean age of those 55 ADPKD patients was 45 ± 12 years, 21 patients were male. The average value of the SIDVP was 11.11 ± 2.22 m/s. The patients were divided into two groups by the cutoff value of 11 m/s of SIDVP and then outcomes were analyzed. In the higher arterial stiffness group (SIDVP > 11 m/s), occurrence of combined primary endpoint (CV and renal) was significantly higher than in the group with more elastic arteries (p = 0.033). A statistically significant difference was found in the renal endpoints (p = 0.018), but not in the CV endpoints (p = 0.952) between the two groups. Conclusions: Increased arterial stiffness predicts the onset of ESRD in ADPDK. Assessment of SIDVP appears to be a useful method for estimating the renal and CV prognosis in ADPKD.
Keywords: arterial stiffness, chronic kidney disease, autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease, renal function, renal prognosis
Abstract: Background and aims: Sedentary lifestyles have recently been identified as potential mechanism for obesity and associated metabolic diseases linked to ill health. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of standing and sitting–standing positional changes on energy cost and consequently interrupting sedentary sitting time while working. Methods: A total of 26 healthy male volunteers performed normal typing and editing work for 100 min under three conditions. The conditions included sustained sitting, sustained standing, and sitting–standing alternation every 20 min using a sit–stand desk. Respiratory parameters measured included minute ventilation (VE), oxygen consumption (VO2), and energy expenditure (EE). Measurements were recorded using a calibrated Cosmed K4b2 portable gas analysis system. Results: The mean value for VE was the highest in the standing position (VE = 13.33 ± 0.71), followed by sitting–standing alternation (VE = 12.04 ± 0.62). Both were significantly different from sitting (VE = 10.59 ± 0.69). The maximum VE and EE for standing (VE = 14.81 ± 0.43 and EE = 1.84 ± 0.10) and sitting–standing alternation (VE = 14.80 ± 0.40 and EE = 1.93 ± 0.08) were significantly higher than that of sitting (VE = 12.15 ± 0.42 and EE = 1.67 ± 0.07). No significant differences were observed in the mean VO2 among the three conditions. However, the maximum VO2 for both standing (VO2 = 5.40 ± 0.20) and sitting–standing alternation (VO2 = 5.14 ± 0.17) had shown to be significantly higher than sitting (VO2 = 4.50 ± 0.18). There were no significant differences observed in the mean EE levels between sitting (EE = 1.43 ± 0.07) and sitting–standing alternation (EE = 1.55 ± 0.08). However, the mean EE while standing (EE = 1.62 ± 0.09) significantly increased compared to sitting. Conclusions: The findings of this study indicate that sitting–standing alternations may be implemented as an effective intervention to interrupt prolonged sitting while working.
Keywords: sedentary behavior, sitting–standing alternation, energy expenditure, health benefits, expenditure
Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the effects of single local vibration (LV) with and without blood flow restriction (BFR) on muscle activity and hormonal responses. A total of 12 physically inactive males were exposed to 10 sets of intermittent LV (35–40 Hz) on unilateral mid-quadriceps in the supine lying position and LV + BFR (inflated to 140 mmHg) sessions in a repeated-measures randomized crossover design, with a 1-week interval separating the sessions. The results indicated that the electromyography values from the rectus femoris during LV + BFR were greater than those during LV (p < 0.05). LV + BFR caused a minor increase in the lactate (LA) response (p < 0.05). Cortisol (C) levels were decreased postexercise in both the sessions (p < 0.05). In conclusion, BFR elicited higher increase in muscle activity and metabolic response, but it did not induce hormonal responses. The exposure of LV and LV + BFR may only have a relief effect as detected by the reduction in C levels, probably because the LV did not elicit sufficient stimulus to the muscles.
Keywords: electromyography, lactate, growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of submaximal cycling at different exercise intensities on maximal isometric force output of the non-exercised elbow flexor muscles after the cycling. A total of 8 healthy young men performed multiple maximal voluntary contractions by the right elbow flexion before, immediately after, 5 min after, and 10 min after a 6-min submaximal cycling at ventilatory threshold (LI), 70%V : O2peak (MI), and 80% V : O2peak (HI) with both arms relaxed in the air. Force and surface electromyogram (EMG) of the right biceps brachii muscle during the multiple MVCs, blood lactate concentration ([La]), cardiorespiratory responses, and sensations of fatigue for legs (SEF-L) were measured before, immediately after, 5 min after, and 10 min after the submaximal cycling with the three different exercise intensities. Immediately after the submaximal cycling, [La], cardiorespiratory responses, and SEF-L were enhanced in proportion to an increase in exercise intensity of the cycling. Changes in force and EMG activity during the multiple MVCs were not significantly different across the three conditions. The findings imply that group III/IV muscle afferent feedback after the submaximal cycling does not determine the magnitude of MVC force loss of the non-exercised upper limb muscles.
Keywords: muscle fatigue, afferent feedback, central nervous system, blood lactate concentration, electromyogram
Abstract: Background: A training program consisting of only one-repetition maximum (1RM) training results in similar strength adaptations as traditional resistance exercise. However, little is known regarding the affective or behavioral responses to this type of training. Aim: To examine the affective and behavioral response to either a traditional resistance exercise program or a biweekly 1RM-training program. Methods: Participants were trained for 8 weeks (2× per week). The HYPER group completed four sets of 8–12 repetitions; the 1RM group (TEST) worked up to a single maximal repetition. Results: The TEST group felt more revitalized and had an increase in positive engagement during their first visit, whereas the HYPER group showed an increase in feelings of physical exhaustion during their first and last visits. There were no pre to post differences for the change in behavior or self-efficacy between groups. Conclusion: 1RM training appears to elicit a more favorable affective response, compared with HYPER training, which may ultimately improve adherence to resistance-type exercise.
Keywords: vascular conductance, blood flow, affect, feelings, resistance training