Abstract: The regional innovation strategy is recognised as a powerful driver of economic development at regional level. Over the years the methodology of developing the regional innovation strategy has been broken down into three phases: 1) building up consensus, 2) analysing of the innovation potential in a region, and 3) defining priorities and action plan. The aim of the article is to present the regional innovation strategy as a driver of economic development in a region, to explain the content and the process of forming the regional innovation strategy and to give the view on practical approach to developing a regional innovation strategy in the Banska Bystrica region. Attention will be given to building up the consensus in Banska Bystrica region, to the detailed analysis and evaluation of regional innovation potential as the outcomes for forming the regional innovation strategy in Banska Bystrica region (stress is placed on a detailed analysis of economic potential and sector trends, on analysis of entrepreneurs needs, on analysis of technological offer and support to entrepreneurs and on analysis of the research and development state in a region of Banska Bystrica). Results of the analysis are of high importance and are viewed as the basic preconditions for the definition of main priorities for increasing innovation capacity in the Banska Bystrica region. For each of the stated priorities system measures of the strategy are described together with the set of proposed pilot activities. The paper was elaborated as a part of VEGA project 1/0654/11, “Innovative small and medium enterprises as a part of knowledge-based economy in Slovakia“.
Keywords: regional innovation strategy; the process of forming regional innovation strategy; consensus building up; analysis of regional innovation potential; SWOT analysis; priorities; measures and activities in regional innovation strategy
Abstract: Our assumptions, made on the basis of evaluating completed questionnaires that have been returned reflect our impressions. During the survey, businesses considered developments in the business environment as definitely favourable. In addition to reporting increasing uncertainty, they deemed Hungary’s political climate in the last years, domestic markets and social changes as having marked effects. After Hungary’s accession to the European Union, small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) cannot perceive major impacts of accession, or blame the prevailing political situation for all changes. Small businesses do not capitalize on the opportunities offered by the European Union, do not make efforts to apply for EU grants and funds, or do not attempt to penetrate new markets. In our opinion, the companies participating in our survey are not aware of the opportunities available to them. Among the economic policy factors, a reliable monetary policy has the most benevolent impact on the operation of businesses. A survey of micro economic factors shows the most important areas to develop.
Keywords: competitiveness research environment; economic policy factors; effects of EU enlargement; environmental factors and responses; micro economic factors
Abstract: The main goal of our research was to determine the modes of governance and management in examined enterprises and to see how well enterprises are prepared to cope with difficult economic conditions caused by the crisis which started in 2008. The presence of advanced modes of management (evolutionarily described as cognitive and integral or integrative management) is the necessary precondition to deal with difficult economic times. The research results show that the more advanced cognitive and integrative modes of management are present to a greater extent in larger enterprises; they are present in smaller enterprises as well, but only to a lesser extent. The research was carried out in Slovenia, a former socialist country and EU member. The findings of our study may also have implications for other countries with a similar make-up.
Keywords: enterprise; management; governance; integral management; developmental modes of management
Abstract: In the period of transition (2000-2009) Serbia established institutions and developed a legal framework for SME support. The number of SMEs increased from year to year and, more importantly, from 2005 the number of new working places became in excess to those which disappeared in companies in restructuring. The global economic crisis influenced the Serbian economy negatively and the SME sector, as well. However, one has to bear in mind that even before the crisis the Serbian development model has faced its limits. Namely, it was not sustainable in the medium term. A set of measures were introduced by the government and the national bank of Serbia in an attempt to curb recession, but were partially late and slightly weak. Modest signs of economic recovery appeared in Serbia in 2010. Considering that the growth rate is positive, but low and insufficient, the SME sector has to be recognized as more important factor for the recovery. As the first phase of SME support has ended it is important to change the policy emphasis to more intensive one. The point regarding SME support in the future is to introduce measures especially for fast growing small companies and gazelles, in an aim to overcome recession and make whole economy more competitive on international market.
Keywords: entrepreneurship; small and medium scale enterprises; transition
Abstract: When the crisis broke out in October 2008, the economies of Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania and Slovakia were in different situations, but the governments of these countries took very similar action to eliminate the negative impacts. It is extremely important to know how their companies reacted to the crisis, and our study aims to uncover what actions companies from the selected four countries plan to take concerning the field of human resource management in the present financial and economic crisis. With a brief review of the literature we demonstrate the role of Human Resources in this critical period before presenting the findings of our empirical research conducted from November 2008 to February 2009.
Keywords: Human Resource Management; Crisis; Crisis theories; Bulgaria; Hungary; Romania; Slovakia
Abstract: During its activity, an enterprise passes through different life cycle stages, which differ in terms of management systems, formal structures, control systems, documentation of transactions, and number of procedural hurdles. Therefore, our main research problem focused on the differences in informal and formal institutional measures of business ethics implementation. We used the case study research methodology to explore the differences of informal and formal institutional measures of business ethics implementation at different stages of the enterprise life cycle. The pre-designed questionnaire was used to conduct face-to-face interviews with 40 managers who were in most cases also owners of the studied enterprises.
Keywords: enterprise life cycle; informal and formal measures of business ethics implementation
Abstract: In this paper I explore the relationship between FDI, exports, GDP and income inequality in Eastern European countries. The empirical test shows positive and significant relations between increasing income inequality and increasing level of FDI stock in Eastern-European states. In general, supporting previous publications in this area, I found that export intensity acts to decrease wage dispersion, while the local effects could be different from the regional effects. Higher levels of GDP has only a slight effect on the GINI index. Besides between FDI inflow and GINI index, the relation was not demonstrable. In common with previous empirical analysis, I found evidence of the higher level of high-technology export’s diverting effect on income inequality.
Keywords: FDI; income inequality; Eastern Europe
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to demonstrate a simple Ricardian model of international trade for health care industries of different countries. Our motivation is to illustrate that specialization and free trade result in gains from international trade. We will shed some light on the economics of outbound as well as inbound medical tourism. By adopting the model of comparative advantage to the costs of medical surgeries, we will show that trade between our two model countries – India and the USA – is beneficial to both of them. We focused on these two countries due to their prominence in worldwide medical tourism flows, as well as due to their significant difference in per capita income. By specializing on the type of surgery they are most efficient in producing, it will enhance the well being of both nations. Numerical examples and graphical presentations help to support our arguments. Beside the global aspect of medical tourism, we also want to shed some light into regional patient flows with a focus on Germany and Hungary. In addition, we will lift some of the more restrictive assumptions. By including transportation costs as well as a larger variety of surgical services, the central message of the beneficial effect of specialization still remains, even though the general picture becomes slightly blurred. There is evidence for support of a more multi-polar international system of trade in medical services the moment one extends the economic analysis with additional countries.
Keywords: Regional and global scope of medical tourism; Ricardian trade model; comparative advantage; economic gains from international trade
Abstract: The benchmarking of real estate performance is a commonly used tool in the efficient and sustainable maintenance management of existing facilities. Performance needs to be measured and monitored to support stakeholders’ core business and maintenance strategies. Many of the performance indicators used to measure real estate are based on the area of the maintained property. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the appropriate methodology of facility management benchmarking and to show the use of benchmarking on the Hungarian real estate market. The results are based on a questionnaire survey with corporate real estate executives as well as facility management service providers.
Keywords: performance; benchmarking; maintenance; facility management; sustainability
Abstract: The selection of a bridge design from among a number of alternatives that meets desired conditions is a complex task. In such projects the stakeholders may have conflicting interests as they represent dissimilar perspectives. It is especially difficult to simultaneously satisfy the diverse engineering, economical, legal and environmental requirements implying both tangible and intangible data of multiple criteria. This paper discusses the methodology and the key activities of the project completion reports of bridge designs. The fundamentals of two well-known methods, a multiple-criteria decision making method, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and the Kane simulation technique (KSIM) are described. A realistic application of these methods to the evaluation and comparison of three bridges of different types is also presented.
Keywords: bridge design; analytic hierarchy process; Kane simulation