Abstract: This paper shows the in situ analysis of a primary settling tank (PST) at the Graz Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (500 000 PE). The study aims at the deeper understanding of primary settling tanks behaviour by measurement of flow pattern within the tank and suspended solids (SS) separation.
Measurement campaigns were carried out at different surface overflow rates (a main measure of PST load), that ranged from low to even higher values than recommended ones by design guidelines. During the measurements the inflowing and outflowing SS concentrations and loads were registered on-line. The flow pattern (3D velocity measurements, turbulence characteristics) was measured by using Acoustic - Doppler - Velocimetry (ADV) in raster . The settling function was carried out by laboratory test at Budapest Central Wastewater Treatment Plant, which was investigated at representative concentration of PST.
The measurements provided detailed insight into the flow and mass transport processes within the PST and valuable calibration and verification data for further CFD modelling.
Keywords: waste water treatment, primary settling tanks, CFD
Abstract: The article introduces main results of a research about defining parking needs to land use functions on the principles of sustainable mobility. Objective of the research was to find a method of determining differentiated, realistic (and environmentally friendly) parking standards applicable in the practice of urban planning and traffic design. Process of the work is briefly presented. Existing Hungarian practice of determining parking demands for different land use functions and zones is dealt with, pointing out problems, inconsequent issues and necessity of an urgent review. Factors to be taken into consideration (land use type, location within the city structure, accessibility and service level of public transportation system, simultaneity of usage land use zones, etc.) are listed. A model for calculation of realistic parking needs is shown. Needs and possible directions of further research are explained.
Keywords: Sustainable mobility, parking standard, land use, accessibility, liveable cities.
Abstract: The history of eco (organic) farming in Hungary has begun in 1983. Currently, approx. 2% of the agricultural area is managed this way. This research gives a survey on the architectural backgrounds of this specific land management type.
Sustainability and energy conservation have brought along a new demand in the construction industry, including design and operation of agricultural buildings: the usage of energy efficient, environmentally friendly and preferably renewable energy based building alternatives.
Among the energy-saving solutions we have to emphasize those passive systems in particular, which use the natural conditions (sunlight, shading, ventilation, gravity, etc.) on their own, without the help of mechanical equipment, and achieve energy efficiency by placing and structuring technological buildings accordingly.
Keywords: Eco (organic) farming, Agricultural architecture, Sustainability, Renewable energy, Passive systems
Abstract: Spatial ability development is of paramount importance in engineering training, especially for architects. The paper aims to compare results achieved by the world-wide Mental Rotation Test (MRT) at the University of Ljubljana and at the Ybl Faculty of SzIU in Budapest, with respect to total scores, improvement and hand preferences. The paper concludes that the mental rotation aspect of spatial intelligence can significantly be developed by Descriptive Geometry courses in both countries. Sophisticated statistical analysis, however, leads to new ideas in scoring MRT. The main goal of the paper is to present an alternative scoring system, which seems to be fairer and provides the expected statistical behavior of samples.
Keywords: spatial ability, Mental Rotation Test, Descriptive Geometry education
Abstract: The mechanical behaviour of eccentrically compressed stocky bars of rectangular cross section, having no-tension material is well known. The aim of the structural analysis is to determine the distribution of the stresses arisen from the effect of an eccentrically compressive force, i.e. to describe the shape of the stress block, and to calculate the compressive resistance of the bar. Some important details of the phenomenon could not be found in the technical literature. In our paper we study these details. We evaluate the analytical functions of the curves, bounding areas lain around the kern or the point of gravity, on which areas the eccentric force acts a pentagonal compressed zone arisen. Furthermore, we determine the resistance of the stocky bar in the cases of triangular and rectangular compressive zone.
Keywords: eccentric compression, rectangular cross section, stocky bars
Abstract: In this article an extensive but not exhaustive review on different transformable systems – retractable roofs, deployable and retractable pantographic lattice systems, pop-up and snap-through type structures, tensegrity structures – used in architecture and civil engineering will be given. This study was carried out to explore earlier and current researches and technologies to demonstrate the available systems and their potential. However, the main goal of this article is to expose the wild range of structural systems requiring elaborate dynamical analysis, divers of them are still lacking profound calculation procedure.
The reviewed systems are herein categorized in two groups: 1) multibody systems having additional controlling and stabilizing elements and 2) systems undergoing large deformation, and instability phenomena. The article will pan out about the applicable joint types, some of them involving friction and damping effects. For a better outline, simplified analysis of elementary segments of some reviewed systems is annexed.
Keywords: deployable structures, transformable systems, dynamic architecture, pop-up systems, snapthrough structures