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A Békés Megyei Múzeumok Közleményei30. (2007.)


  • Deli Tamás :

    Some data to the land snail fauna of Transtisza I. Szatmár-Beregi-sík

    This paper collects the results of the malacofaunistic studies carried out between 1993 and 2005 in the Szatmár-Beregi-sík. The outcome of the research in the past 13 years is 801 items (11,731 specimens) of 50 species (including the ones came up from the scum) detected in the Szatmár-Beregi-sík.

    In addition to the faunistic data, I describe the land snail fauna of the particular biotopes by emphasizing the characteristic species.

    Beyond the malacofaunistic investigations, I have tried to find an answer to the question how the expansion of the particular land snail species could proceed from the direction of the mountainous district towards the flatland region. For this, I have compared the fauna of one mountainory reach of Tisza (next to Huszt) with the recens and scum fauna in the flood plain of Bagiszeg (Vásárosnamény). Furthermore, in some cases, I have examined what kind of relic faunas had remained on the "hills" standing out in flatland, and what kind of role they could had played in the development of the malacofauna of the flatland forests. In zoogeographical characterization, I have laid a particular stress on the high proportion of Carpathian endemisms (14 percent) in the almost entirely closed forest fauna, being a unique characteristic in the Alföld (Great Plain).

  • Váncsa Klára :

    Malacofaunistic investigation of the flood plain and the inundation area of the Maros River in the surroundings of the Bezdin Monastery

    Between Arad City and the Romanian - Hungarian border, along the lower reach of Maros River, the "River Mures Flood Plain Natural Park" was founded at the beginning of 2005. On the territory of Hungary, the natural park situated in Romania connects with the Körös-Maros National Park forming one unit with that. From amidst the nature conservation areas of the Natural Park the Nature Reserve of Nagyporond {Prundul Mare) is the most significant area of the lower reach of Maros River from geologic and ecological as well as cultural historic points of view. The hundreds-year-old Serbian Orthodox monastery is situated also here fitting into the landscape in a harmonic way (Figure 3, Photo 2).

    In 2000, in the framework of "the valley of Maros River as an écologie corridor" research project, we carried out the malacological survey of the lower part of the river valley in the surroundings of the Bezdin Monastery adjacent to Munar village. At that time, this area was not protected yet. We chose this area since here very much biotopes of different composition could be found relatively near to one another. In 2004, Tamás Domokos collected malacological material in the area again, and in this way, I obtained further data after four years. Therefore, I have thought that I collect the data of several years and with respect to that and examine the malacofauna of the area.

    I completed my data with the data of Bába and Kondorossy (1995) relating to the area.

    In 2000, I carried out the collection with quadrate method (ten quadrates per biotope). However, the sampling in 2004 was done by 'thinning out' and 'mass collection' methods, on account of which I could not make the coenological comparison between the collection of 2000 and the one of 2004. In 2000 only land species, while in 2004 also aquatic species were collected. Altogether (during the collections of 1995, 2000 and 2004) 41 species were found, from which there are 30 land species and 11 aquatic ones. Amongst them many rare and worth for protection species can be found.

    These data series shall be deemed as complementing each other, and with this way of looking a roughly total picture forms about the malacofauna of the Nagyporond as well Bezdin area.

  • Gyucha Attila ,
    Bácsmegi Gábor ,
    Fogas Ottó ,
    William A. Parkinson :

    The pitcher goes so long to the well... Iron Age wells from the outskirts of Békéscsaba

    From amidst the few excavated and even less published Scythian Age settlements we can mention wells from Nyíregyháza - Manda-bokor and Békéscsaba -DTCSV clay-pit No. 3. Digging of the wells founded in the outskirts of Békéscsaba was influenced mainly by the environmental factors of the Mezőség and the valley of Körös Rivers, i.e., climate change, occurrence of living waters and the farming form of the Scythian Age population. Owing to the climate becoming dryer and dryer, the absence of permanent living waters (springs, rivers and lakes) and their presumably settled, pastoral way of life the Alföld-group of the Scythian Culture was constrained to dig wells.

    We can class the two Scythian Age wells excavated by Edit Nikolin in 1987 amongst the lined wells. Both wells were so called 'rováskút' (timber lined well) made from planks, constructed in a quadratic form. From the studied well No. 11 very little finds have come up, while in the sediment of well No. 12 lots of animal bones and ceramic fractions as well as a water ladle of biconical body with punching and a small rush basket have been found.

    At reconstructing the well No. 12, we can apply the "notched plank timber lining" technology being well known from ethnography. In compliance with that a 3-3,5 meter diameter hole approx. five meters deep of straight wall was dug until the level of water breaking out. After that a quadratic 'rovás' (notched plank timber lining) consisting of 2-3 centimeters thick, 1,1 meter long and 10-12 centimeters wide planks was built into the middle of the cylindrical well-hole at least until the Scythian Age surface. They filled back the earth getting out of digging the well hole mixed with household wastes between the wall of the well hole and the notched plank timber lining.

    On the basis of the typical Scythian Age archeological material got out of the well, we can date its usage to the sixth - fourth century before Christ. Based on the sediment appearing near to the bottom of the well and mixed with household wastes densely, we can presume that the well No. 12 was not used for a long time. After having terminated its usage, the well was utilized further as a waste pit. The animal bones got out of the well show the following proportion and numbers: swine (82,4 percent, 2 specimens), cattle (5,9 percent, 1 specimen), sheep / goat (4,4 percent, 1 specimen), horse (3,7 percent, 1 specimen), dog (2,9 percent, 1 specimen) and hare (0,7 percent, 1 specimen).

  • Bóka Gergely ,
    Tugya Beáta :
    Egy békéscsabai szkíta kút állatcsontleletei151-164 [5.36 MB - PDF]EPA-01577-00029-0040

    Animal bone finds of a Scythian well in Békéscsaba

    In 1987, Edit Nikolin archeologist of the Munkácsy Mihály Museum of Békéscsaba conducted a rescue excavation at the clay-pit No. 3 of the 'Cserépipari Vállalaf (Roofing Tile Company). The animal bone material of two Scythian Age wells got into the museum. From one of the wells only a single animal bone, the distal fraction of a horse humerus got in. From the other one numerous vertebrate animal remains were preserved. The object contained 141 animal bones altogether. Amongst the remains, we have found swine bones in the largest number, altogether 112 pieces, which means 82,4 percent. In addition, the well contained some cattle (8 pieces, 5,9 percent), sheep/goat (6 pieces, 4,4 percent), horse (5 pieces, 3,7 percent) and four dog bones (2,9 percent) as well as a single hare bone (0,7 percent). From the numerous swine bones we can conclude two specimens and from the bones of the other species to one specimen respectively. About the sheep/goat and the horse as well as both swine, it can be ascertained that they could be butchered in their youth, in not full-grown age. We have taken notice of chewing marks only in case of two bones. The consumption of dog is hardly credible, since on its bones there are no chewing marks. An entirely intact femur points also to this fact. The detailed publications upon the animal bone material of the Scythian Age settlements have not been born. Neither the frequency order of domestic animals is known. From the material of a single object, we cannot draw a far-reaching conclusion. Anyhow, it can be ascertained that besides horse, small and big ruminants, they consumed swine, and also games colored their nourishment.

  • Németh Csaba :

    Formation and the initial years of the independent evangelical parish of Gyula

    Following the First World War, it was necessary to begin the organization of the congregation almost again. From 1922, the church services were arranged with monthly regularity. The new warden, dr. Endre Vangyel chief constable took over the initiative, who was helped by Dezső Kuthy mission pastor.

    The induction of Gábor Kemény mission pastor was held on 4 November 1923. While the independent parish was formed on 12 August 1924. In October of that year, the National Land Reallocating Court allocated 41 cadastral holds (23,6 hectare) of land for the parish. At the beginning of 1926, a schoolmaster was assigned to this place to perform the cantor's duties. Herewith the conditions of independence were created. However, the pastor left to Baja on 15 April 1927 since his salary was unsettled.

    On 25 September 1927 Károly Tátrai assistant minister of mining district, the attendant of the missionary parish of Csépa was appointed to his place. The congregation's life was hounded by the financial problems. The pastor's salary of 200 pengő per month could have been kept up only from the relief found of mission.

    In spite of that, as a result of a countrywide collection, a newly built church was dedicated on 18 December 1927. The home missionary work became stronger: in 1929 local Luther Association, Evangelical Women's Club and Girls' Club were formed. The congregation could have taken its due place in the social life of the town. They tended the patients of the hospital and the ТВ sanatorium arranging two church services per month in them. In the penitentiary, they gave religious instructions twice a month for the youthful persons. At this time, 110 children received religious instruction in Gyula. Between 1 December and Pentecost Bible studies were held twice a week for the adults. The members of the Christian Juvenile Club gathered in the afternoons of Sunday.

    The congregation received an area of 1468 square öl (about 0.5 hectare) from the new municipal public cemetery as a graveyard. By the end of 1927 the church, on 15 August 1930 the new council room and in a year later the parsonage were finished. However, in 1932 the pastor conflicted with a part of the faithful because of the rigid judgment of the letters of mutual concessions. The peace was reestablished only by the change of pastor.

  • S. Turcsányi Ildikó :

    Election campaign songs from Békés (1896-1905), from the historical collection of the Jantyik Mátyás Museum

    In our paper, we have endeavored to make known the total local propaganda material to be found in our museum upon three consecutive electoral campaigns at the turn of the 19-20 century, which is in politics perhaps the most stirring period of the dualistic Hungary. Notwithstanding their message and literary value is insignificant, the election songs reported in detail hold loads of information beyond measure upon the manners of the country elections, the social affiliation of people behind the candidates, the life of the epoch and the political relations. In addition to the election songs, there are also placards, parliamentary speeches, drawings and news reports in the background material of the parliamentary elections of 1896, 1901 and 1905 being discussed here.

    We supplement the representation of the election songs from the millennium year with the articles of the Vasárnapi Újság (Sunday Paper) and the drawings of Mátyás Jantyik painter the eponym of our museum, which were published in the newspaper and illustrate the provincial campaign. After dissecting the election districts of the county we manage to find time here to deal with writing down the methods influencing the election (e.g., 'electoral geography'). The signers of placards and leaflets are the well-known local fellows of the period. Our brief survey of local history examines the support behind the candidates by social classes. We preserve also parliamentary speech from the representative elected.

    From 1901, in connection with the document containing the division of electors of Békés by district, we examine the elective franchise of the epoch in detail. In addition, the political party life went on differently. We mention it at making known a candidate setting up minutes. We quote the press comments of the elections from the columns of the county newspaper entitled Békés. Apart from the election songs, we have parliamentary speeches from the representative elected.

    We preserve the most election songs from the election of 1905. Sometimes these were made giving answers to one another. At making known the poems we tried follow some kind of order. Because of its importance of local history, we give full details of the course of life of Ferenc Kecskeméti reformed pastor having won the election.

    The work is supplemented with picture pages with the drawings of Mátyás Jantyik painter and the photocopy of one election song per every candidate of all elections discussed.

  • Gyarmati Gabriella: :

    Exhibitions of fine arts and applied arts in the Munkácsy Mihály Museum between 2001 and 2004

    As the fellow worker of the Munkácsy Mihály Museum Department of Fine Arts a significant part of my activity's scope is to carry through - with varying function and scope of duties - the exhibitions of fine arts and applied arts of our institution. In this paper, I undertake taking stock of these programs and looking briefly over the art-exhibitions realized by the Department of General Education in most cases upon the request of Békéscsaba City of County Rank, focusing my attention to the art historical connections in the first place. Since the decisive majority of the exhibitions by the Museum is of fine arts subject it seems fortunate to narrow down my inquiry - merely referring to quantitative reasons - to the period between 2001 and 2004.

    The unequalness - just like in qualitative point of view - of the texts discussing the particular art-exhibitions represents the personal, professional based relationship well, which of course does not influence the attitude to performing duties. Nevertheless, it is indisputable that the image building intention formed consciously by the exhibitions during series of years appears in the activities conducted by trustee in the cleanest way. Conversely, the orientation of trustee is rather dependent on personality. It would be fine to believe that within the period discussed we succeeded in creating a kind of intellectual medium, perhaps workshop by the choice of art-exhibitions. However, for its sure announcement still a lot of changing shall occur concerning the audience, the local representatives of the fine and applied arts profession as well as the fellow workers of the museum. Consequently, it is keeping us waiting.

  • Gábor Gabriella :
    Favázas, lemezes kamerák a fényképezés őskorából353-386 [10.30 MB - PDF]EPA-01577-00029-0090

    Wood-bodied, plate cameras from the prehistory of photography

    The beginning of the history of photography goes back to the 16 century, when the first camera obscura was described and made. It was an apparatus, with which the image of an external object could have been produced by the help of light coming through on it. The demand for fixing the projected image existed in people from the beginning, for which formerly drawing and painting and from the 18 century using of various photochemical procedures gave possibility. From this time, the development of photosensitive layers and cameras progressed in big steps. The construction of cameras has not change during their development considering the essentials. They consist of three basic elements: a light-intercepting screen (rear plate), a front with the lens and a darkroom (bellows) fitting the above two. According to the constructional version of these three basic elements several kind apparatus types has been differentiated. The frame of the cameras built in the period of the beginning was made of wood, and their darkroom was manufactured from leather or canvas in bellows system. These apparatuses were equipped with plate holders for the raw material and ground glass viewing screens for focusing the image as well as fixed or interchangeable lens. The type of wood-bodied, plate cameras consists of studio cameras, field cameras, hand cameras, technical cameras and press-cameras.

    The first part of this paper is the description of the process camera being the part of the collection of the Munkácsy Mihály Museum (pictures 1-11). It is a large-sized apparatus mountable on tripod with rectangular bellows darkroom, wooden plate holder, ground glass viewing screen and fixed (periscope system) lens. The second part of this paper makes known the description and the restoration of a folding "English-type" field camera (pictures 12-34) with baseboard, insert-able plate holder, ground glass viewing screen as well as rack and pinion, double-draw, narrowing bellows and interchangeable lens.

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