Outcomes of the botanical exploration of the nature reserve of Biharugra
At the bottom of the Bihar Mountains, in the middle section of the Sebes-Körös Valley one can find Biharugra Nature Reserve. Notwithstanding the river-regulations, the landscape created by the rivers has retained some original plant communities and natural values. Out of the Sárrét of the Sebes-Körös, reed-plots, high sedge fields, marshlands remained. In the extensive saline areas, we can find hay field with worm grass or brush grass, in the higher fields there are associations of saline fields, loess grass residues and steppe meadows.
I started the botanical exploration of the area from the middle of the 1980s, I carried out regular, comprehensive groundwork in 1999-2001.
In the researches it became obvious that thanks to its position at the edge of the Great Plain the flora of the Biharugra Nature Reserve holds numerous things of interest.
The number of the registered vascular plants is 470, out of which 68 are regionally valuable and 17 are protected plant species.
Malacofauna of the hungarian section of the Fekete-Körös Valley
The authors compare the malacofauna and ecological relations of the three Salicetum albae-fragilis in the Fekete-Körös Valley.
Near 20% of the 24-member snail-group found in the osier-beds consists of narrow-tolerance mountain elements. These mountain elements are the representatives of the farthest fluctuational spots of the Praecarpathicum.
The dominant Carychium minimum and the subdominant Cochlicopa lubrica proved to be the stenotop character species of the Salicetums.
In the osier-beds the total abundance is between 268.8 and 6268.8 pcs/m2.
In the structure of the snail-groups the steppe and hygrofil elements, in terms of trophity levels the saprophag elements are dominants.
In the osier-beds the continental elements amount to three times more than the sub-Atlantic ones. The considerable, 1/3 share of the Mediterranean species group supports the assumption that the southern elements spread through the Car-pathicum - Praecarpathicum "road".
Outcomes of the malaco-transsect collected in the Déda and Zám Pass, and in Maroslekence in the Transylvanian Basin (Romania)
In the summer of 1999 a research programme embracing the total length of the River Maros was launched, in which surveying the terranean malaco-fauna of the river valley started.
During the collecting tour we took samples in total of 14 places in the Maros Valley. Out of them in three places we performed transsect sample collection.
Collection places of the three transsect are located in the well-distinguishable lands crossed by the River Maros: the first is in the Maroshéviz-Déda Pass, at the Galónya Rock; the second is in the Transylvanian Basin where the river is flowing already in a flat area, while the third is in the Zám Pass separating the South Car-paths from the West Szigethegység.
In the survey of the three transsect we concluded that the park forests extending in the flood-basin are the land elements richest in species. It is because two fluctuational zones meet here: the first is coming from the earth, the other is from the river. The bank's park forests are important starting points of the spread of species, while providing settlement opportunities for coming species.
On account of the anthropogene intervention diversity of the malaco-fauna is diminishing.
The malaco-fauna plastically indicates the micro-climate of a region: in spite of the fact that migration of species seeks to mix the diversity between certain bi-otopes. Species with great ecological tolerance can be found in most of the lands and their homogenising impact is considerable.
Figure of a rabies-veterinary surgeon in the folk memory in Füzesgyarmat
Sándor Daru jr. worked as a last representative of a famous rabies-veterinary dynasty from the end of the 1800s to the middle of the 1900s. We can meet his name in the beliefs of not only his close environment, the Sárrét, but the surroundings of the Nagykunság and Hortobágy also. I sought to make a proportional synthesis between the two fundamental layers of the materials collected earlier by the ethnographers and my collections: data coming from the data-suppliers in Füzesgyarmat and the closer family.
Most of the text material, rooted in irrationalism, involved in our research are simply conveying beliefs. The figure of the realistic healer being in possession of, though disguised, empirical knowledge interwove with the silhouette of more belief figures with superman power: the scholar, the shepherd, the satanic coachman, the steed and the witch.
The folk cure can be featured as a synthesis of the public knowledge descended from the scientific medicine and the knowledge originated in the folk tradition and available exclusively for specialists. Sándor Daru jr.'s concrete activities for healing rabies can be outlined only indirectly, using analogies of the written sources and folklore materials collected. Its reason lies in the fact that the rabies-vets concealed the principles of their diagnostic and healing activities, recipes of their medicines, their knowledge was inherited on male line to the first-born issue. They were forced to keep their methods in secret probably because of the tradition, in a less degree, while primarily the increasing hostility shown by the official medicine since the 19th century and the legal sanctions introduced against the folk healers. Although the verbal statements on Sándor Daru jr. belong largely to the sphere of folklore, according to the used historical sources and the family memories his knowledge seems founded on empirical personal adaptation of the methods applied in the official medicine at the end of 18th century.
All of the data-suppliers in Füzesgyarmat asked by me (who were born, with several exceptions, before 1950s) have already heard the name of Rabied Sándor Daru, at least remembering him as often mentioned by older people. Many remembered only a belief-fragment relating to him, based on hearsay. These included Sándor Dam's animal-healing activities in general, and his causing illness, sending dogs.
People and their histories in the archive photos on Romanians living in Hungary
The archive photos record the most important elements, events of the personal and family life. Completed with personal autobiographical interviews, comments they make us adopt a new approach to more areas of people's life, bear important information on the life-style and its changes time to time, document the culture of a certain social group, people, nationality, and the important moments of a personal life also.
I carried out a survey of the Romanians in Hungary based on more hundred photos recording families, family events, persons and retained in the Erkel Ferenc Museum. The family pictures are characteristic objects of a personal environment and organic parts of a community's culture as well. The first Hungarian photograph depicting an ethnographic topic, a Transylvanian folk dress, dates back to 1843. It was at the end of 1880s when the first photos were taken on the Romanians living in Hungary, however, the custom of taking photos became widespread as late as the period between the two world wars.
The archive photos mirror the individual determined by the given social environment, therefore through family photographs a picture can be drawn on the society. The series of photos give clues to the whole life of a person, relative or relation system, property status of a family. We can bring the photos under more categories: wedding photos, family group photos, incomplete family photos, soldier photos, catafalque photos, photographs taken on funerals, pictures connecting to the events of the calendar year, photos showing the community's life in the settlement.
The patterns of the photos did not change for a long time, since the novelty and unknown feature of this art form created a certain culture of manner around photography. Positioning of the actors and the often romantic studio background reflected the general fancy of the age. In case of the Romanians at the outset mainly studio photos and open-air family and event photos were taken.
The general effect of the pictures was certainly influenced by the photographers' taste and habits. There are typical elements on the photos, but the main point was to make not their individual but common features recognised. All pictures have got its own history and the relating biographical interviews are useful supplements of the researches in life-style, studies of changes in the form of living.
Data to the history of the population speaking Romanian native language in Szabolcs, Szatmár and Bihar Counties
The author undertakes on the basis of the few studies published so far and her own researches to summarise those important data that in our hope partly will be included in the future years' textbooks for peoples' and nationalities' learning. The study shortly presents the settlements and their historical specialities in Szabolcs, Szatmár and Bihar Counties, which were at one time inhabited partly or in some cases exclusively by Romanians, but presently have got almost in total or in large part an assimilated population. The author addresses the course of and the parallels in the history of the settlements located in the two counties, in the mirror of historical sources and historical statistics. The study includes new outcomes, being a summary of a twenty-year long historical-ethnographical research conducted in ten days annually. The research work was carried out on the spot, in the settlements of Szabolcs, Szatmár and Bihar Counties in question. The author had to cope with the lack or neglect of archive sources regarding Romanian population, in many cases she had to carry out primary source-disclosure in ecclesiastical archives of various settlements. Regrettably in general experience files of small settlements' church communities were not retained during the centuries. In the author's opinion permanent researches continue to be indispensable, because with on-the-spot historical, ethnographical and sociological researches we can get to know more on these settlements shrunk dramatically in their population up to now.
Das eheliche Benehmen der reformierten Bevölkerung der Stadt Arad im XIX. Jahrhundert
Die Arbeit nimmt sich eine Analyse des ehelichen Benehmens der reformierten Gläubigen die im XIX. Jahrhundert in Arad gelebt haben, vor. Die Untersuchung des Autors geht von den in der Geschäftsstelle Arad des Nationalarchivs aufbewahrten Pfarreistandesregistern aus. Diese Register decken nur die Zeitspanne 1830-1880, d.h. von den Anfangen dieser Kirche in Arad bis zum letzten belegten Jahr, ab.
Als erstes stellt der Autor kurz die Konfessionsstruktur der Stadt Arad im XIX. Jahrhundert vor, um dann den Zahlenablauf der in der schon erwähnten Zeitspanne geschlossenen Ehen und deren Beitrag zur Gesamtanzahl der Ehen in Arad zu zeigen. Als Folge des Zusammenrechnens des Indexes der Ehen gelangt er zur Schlussfolgerung dass gegen Jahrhundertende die Anzahl der geschlossenen Ehen im Verhältnis zu 1.000 Einwohnern abgenommen hat.
Das Alter der Ehepartner im Moment der Trauung betrachtend, stellt der Autor fest dass die meisten Mädchen bis zu 24 Jahren und die meisten Jungen zwischen 25 und 40 Jahren geheiratet haben. Den Zivilstand der zwischen 1856-1860 und 1871-1875 Verehelichten verfolgend, setzt der Autor fest dass die meisten Ehen unter Personen die nicht nochmals verheiratet gewesen sind geschlossen wur-den. Einen ziemlich grossen Anteil von 40% machten in den Jahren 1856-1860 die Ehen in welchen wenigstens einer der Partner schon eine Ehe hinter sich hatte, aus. In der nächsten Zeitspanne fiel die Anzahl dieser Ehen auf ungefähr 32% herab.
Ein anderes vom Autor analysiertes eheliches Benehmen ist jenes der Mischehen. Die Anzahl dieser wechselte von Jahr zu Jahr: es gibt Jahre wo keine solche Ehen eingeschrieben worden sind aber auch Jahre wo sie über 60% der von den Reformierten geschlossenen Ehen ausmachten. Die meisten Mischehen wurden mit Personen römisch-katholischen und orthodoxen Glaubens geschlossen.
Zum Schluss stellt der Autor fest dass dem ehelichen Benehmen nach die Bevölkerung reformierten Glaubens sich dem Muster jener Zeit einschreibt.
Building of the Evangelic church in Gyula
Building a temple was an old dream of the Evangelicals in Gyula organised into a branch church in 1907. When the World War I broke out, they had already collected 13,000 crowns. However, during the inflation after the world war this money became worth nothing. A new collection had to be started. On 21st December 1925, the city assigned the site under no. 2588-89 in the Baron Wenckheim Béla Street (today: section of the Béke Avenue from the Kossuth Square) to the congregation free of charge for building a house of worship and a vicarage.
The community asked Gedeon Gerlóczy (1895-1975) to make the plans. The finalised plan was ready by 20,h January 1927. The contract was concluded by the supervisor and deacon Benő Kiss with the Melis-Popják firm of Szarvas, who undertook to bring the church under roof by 15th August and carry out the interior works by 30th October within the budget of 49,666 pengős.
Between 1925 and 1933 as a result of 84 collectors' work during a countrywide collection, the community gained 21,346 Ps in a net value, thanks to aids of the domestic and foreign churches 10,538 Ps, from donations 20,316 Ps, while from interests 1027 Ps, in total 55,961 Ps, consequently 95-97 percent of the church-building costs was in the hand of the congregation.
Some small amount of donations from thousands of people amounted to two thirds of the church-building costs (approx. 35-40,000 Ps). Out of the money collected, at least 12,000 Ps came from donators living in Gyula (not only Evangelicals) and further 20,000 Ps from Békés County. Consequently, half of the costs were covered by them.
The money, however, was not at the community's disposal at the time, resulting in more obstructions and more-year litigation with the builders.
The project was started on 20th May 1927, and even if without a tower and with wants of some smaller works, the church of the Evangelical congregation in Gyula was constructed and consecrated on 18th December, Sunday morning, in the presence of bishop Sándor Raffay.
Data to the history of the Békés County branch of Independent Small-holders' Party in the second half of the 1930s
Experiences gained during the elections in year 1935 and the development of the domestic politics had got a decisive impact on the party's activities during the second half of the 1930s. Even if the party's leadership had fostered some illusions earlier as to a sort of co-operation with the Gömbös-government, these were broken by May of 1935. Atrocities and deceits around the elections showed clearly the antidemocratic features of Gömbös' aspirations, while confirmed the necessity of their demand for secret voting. Accordingly, after 1935 the secret elective franchise was put again in the centre of the party's political propaganda. In the second half of the 1930s, the domestic political affairs made the party revise and represent more consistently its political, social and economic aims in order to retain its mass basis. Gömbös's and the following government's articles promising the ascendancy of the villages, as well as the emergence of the village researching movements also encouraged them to deal with the adversities of the rural paupers. The extreme right-wing movements coming forward from the middle of the 1930s with their demagogy also threatened with reducing the social influence of the small-holders. Besides, for a party aiming at the extension of democracy on the ground of parliamentarism, fighting against them was of particular interest, too.
This study addresses these three related issues, the secret elective franchise, improvement of the agricultural workers' conditions, and fight against the extreme right-wing propaganda, through the activities of the Békés County branch of the Independent Small-holders' Party.
Bibliotheken unter dem Schutz eines Museums im Wetterwinkel (1899-1951)
Die Geschichte der im Gebäude des gegenwärtig den Namen von Mihály Munkácsy tragenden Museums befindlichen Bibliotheken kann bis zur als Rechtsvorgänger ansehbaren Bibliothek des 1899 gegründeten Museum-Vereines von Békéscsaba zurückgeführt werden. Ihre Buchsammlung entwickelte sich in erster Linie durch Geschenke, ausserdem durch Tauschexemplare und Kauf. Die Bibliothek befand sich bis zum Jahre 1912 im evangelischem Rudolfgymnasium, woher ihren 3350-bändigen Stand 1912 ins inzwischen neugebautete „Öffentliches Kulturhaus" genannte Museumgebäude umgezogen wurde. Nach der Weiche, vom Jahre 1914 an war die Bibliothek mit dem ersten öffentlichen Lesesaal von Békéscsaba von allen zu benutzen.
Zwischen den zwei Weltkriegen war die Entwicklung der Csabaer Stadtbibliothek nicht ungestört, ihre Erweiterung blieb weit unter den Ansprüchen: sie wurde jährlich mit kaum 80-150 Bänder, die meistens belletristische Werke gemischten Wertes waren, reicher. Die Fachzeitschriften wurden nur durch die „Eth-nographia" und den Archeologischen Bericht vertreten. Der Stand der Bibliothek überstieg am Ende der verhandelten Epoche kaum die 6500 Exemplare.
Während des zweiten Weltkrieges wurde dieser Abteil lieber reicher, als ob er geschädigt worden wäre, da ein Teil der herrenlosen lokalen Privatsammlungen in seinen Räumen aufbewahrt wurde. Das Museum gab auch der 1929 gegründeten Bibliothek des Aurora-Kreises Heimat, dessen 2700 Bänder - wegen seines Fort-schrittskarakters- während des Krieges mussten verborgen gehalten werden.
Nach dem zweiten Weltkrieg wurde Géza Féja mit der Gründung der städtischen Volksbibliothek im Gebäude des Kulturpalastes beauftragt. Die neue Bibliothek bestand aus den Büchern der alten Bibliothek, aus den Dokumenten der Familie Kner, aus dem Bruchteil der westlichen Emigranten, aus den verbliebenen Elementen der Sammlung des Aurora-Kreises, aus den Bibliothekeinheiten der nach dem Krieg aufgelösten gesellschaftlichen Organisationen, Vereine, und aus den Privatsammlungen der Magnaten des Regios. Nach der gelegentlichen Verarbeitung des kleineren Teiles des nur innerhalb einiger Monaten über 20000 Bänder erhöhten Bücherstandes wurde am 15. Juli 1945. die Volksbibliothek der Stadt Békéscsaba eröffnet. Bei der Gründung des Abteiles begann Géza Féja die Organisation der besonderen Einheiten - des Handschriftenarchives und der „Sammlung von Békés"; er hat allein einen Kathalog erstellt, auch die Popularisierung der in der Siedlung noch unbekannten „öffentlichen Bibliothek" ist mit seinem Namen verbunden.
In den Fünfzigerjahren wurde die Lage der Bibliothek unhaltbar, so zog sie wegen des Raummangels und zwecks Modernisierung am Ende 1951 vom Museum getrennt in ein Sondergebäude um. Im Sinne eines Regierungsbeschlusses, der die Organisation einer öffentlichen Sammlung des Komitates vorschrieb, wurde sie aber aufgelassen, ihre ängstlich aufbewahrten Bücher und ihre Arbeiter fanden im März 1952 in der ersten Komitatsbibliothek des Landes ihre Heimat.
Danca, Mirhó, Sirató. Data to hydrographie names
Hydrographie names, relating to lakes or rivers, e.g. "Danca, Mirhó, Sirató" involved in this study most often can be traced in the Great Plain. According to the present state of our research the name "Sirató", alone or in compounds, can found nowhere but along the River Hármas-Körös.
In several places "Mirhó" and "Sirató" survived also in names of outskirts and interior streets. In our opinion all the three words indicating natural waters have got considerable importance regarding hydrographies, settlement geography, local history.
To our knowledge, apart from the "naive folk etymology" which has got its relevance in its own place, none of the words above has got convincing etymological or semantic explanations.
Both "Danca" and "Mirhó" may appear at the same time inside a settlement (e.g. Gyoma). "Danca" mostly signifies a deep area or ditch temporarily filled with water without an outlet, "Mirhó" natural or man-made ditch or brook-bed filled temporarily or constantly with water, but we have got data on that it means a pinched-off meander or lake. Inside settlements it typically signifies borders extending between two house-lines along the "yard feet" or site boundaries. The "Sirató" represents a river-bend, so called "zug", or water course.
Hadak Útján XIII. A népvándorlás kor fiatal kutatóinak konferenciája Gyula, 2002. szeptember 17–19.
Avar-age findings from Kékkút and grave no. 99 of the Balatonudvari-Fövenyes cemetery
The findings found in Kékkút came to the museum sporadically in various times (figure 1). We have got data on approx. 12-13 graves. The graves had got southeast-northwest orientation and formed two grave-lines. In the Kékkút findings, pieces of more interest and even in Avar-age memories relatively rarely traceable, are the small crosses (figure 4. 1, 2a-f). These are pendants of the pieces found in the close graveyards of Káptatlantó and Zamárdi. In addition to the coffin crosses, there are more findings indicating a connection between the cemeteries of Zamárdi and Kékkút (figure 2. 1-2, figure 3. 2-5, 8).
On the ground of the parallels, the findings are to be dated back to the end of the 7th century - beginning of the 8th century. Based on the small number of and sporadic findings, it can be stated that during the middle-late Avar-age a most probably Christian community lived in Kékkút, being in close relation with the population buried in the Avar graveyards of Káptalantó and Zamárdi located nearby, going back to a similar age and showing similar findings (figure 4. 3).
The Balatonudvari-Fövenyes cemetery came to the surface in spring of 2002. In the upper layer we found 10—11th century graves with west-east orientation, under which there were late Avar-age, 9th century burials with northwest - southeast orientation. During the excavation we explored 118 burials. The burials dated back to the 10-11th century were relatively poor in supplements. In most cases bronze S-ended or simple earrings, spiral, circle or brace rings, buttons, pearls, two-edged arrow-heads came to light. In the Avar-age graves characteristic findings of the late period were found. The 10-11th century graves did not subvert the earlier ones. There are no traces of any "mixture" of the two populations. Out of the burials explored up till now, we call the attention to the grave no. 99 containing, in addition to typical late Avar-age supplements, also astragalos bones, unusual in the Avar-age. In our country this sort of things were known primarily in graves of the Hungarian conquest. The 7 pes of sheep bones found in Balatonudvari and the pieces of grave 662 of Kölked-Feketekapu cemetery В are the first to prove that the game spread in a large area since ancient times were not unknown to the Avar people either.
Avar-age pressing shape in Zselickislak
In 1912 the Darnay Museum in Sümeg acquired, among other findings, a pressing shape moulded out of bronze from Zselickkislak (Somogy County). The object, placed in the Balaton Museum in Keszthely following World War II, was published first by Nándor Fettich as early as 1926. The pressing seed used for making belt studs (or perhaps breast clasps), the tendril composition comprising half-palmettas on them, and its ball-lined frame suggest its southern origin, showing affinity to the so-called "Byzantine" objects. Based on its parallels, it was presumably made in the transition period between the so-called pressed and mounted age, at the end of the 7th century.
Approx. this is the time, turn of the 7-8ш century, to which the two-sided pressing stem of Békéscsaba, showing similarly strong south ties, can be dated back, used for making tendril jewels in hair-tails and probably Dunapataj-type breast clasps).
Analysis of both pressing shapes provides new data as to how the Byzantine "high culture" of the Mediterranum made its impact on the arts and material culture of the Avar age.
Cemetery in Kál from the age of the Hungarian conquest
Kál is located in Heves County, south of the Mátra Mountains, in its part belonging to the flatland, along the upper section of the River Tarna. In 1966 during works in a gravel-pit formed in the south of the village, skeletons and arrowhead came to the surface. The rescue excavation was started by János Győző Szabó in 1966. His primary intention was to explore the 10th century cemetery and the ditch-system around it, as this was the area covered directly by the exploitation. The gravel mining probably destroyed some graves at the east side of the grave-field located in north-south direction, according to the excavator, however, not in considerable number. Around the cemetery there is a ditch-system, fenced from the north and west side.
Fortunately the cemetery has been almost completely explored, so its structure and the arrangement of the graves were well observable. Its size is not large, presumably a small community used it through several generations. Regarding the burial order and rite the graveyard shows a integrated view. There are no layered burials, and the graves with, more or less, east orientation form separated groups or lines. Few supplements were found in the graves, there were no rich objects made of precious metals and even poorer versions of decorating mounts to various clothes or horse trappings are absent. No traces of food-drink supplements, the burial with horse was represented by only two graves with horse harness. Consequently, it was hardly surprising not to find belt mounts usually indicating nobility or high dignity.
Almost all types of the objects were in use from the beginning of the 10th century. Many of them are archaic pieces, in most cases, however, they were present continuously in the graveyards of the Carpathian Basin for a long time, to the middle or second third of the 10th century at least. Some of the finds can be dated back more precisely to the beginning of the 10th century. The cemetery presumably was opened by a small group moving in with the first generation of the conquerors and used by 1-2 more generations, which seems confirmed by the anthropological surveys.
Account on the Arpadian Age dwelling houses explored in Gyál 3 and Gyál 10 along Motorway MO
The Directorship of Pest County Museums and the Hungarian National Museum carried out archaeological explorations from April of 2002 for half a year in the periphery of Gyál (Pest County) - relating to the investment of Motorway MO. The two sites, Gyál 3 and Gyál 10, were subverted during construction of Motorway M5 and the area arrangement of the 1980's. Reconstructing the surfaces, we concluded that more coeval smaller villages stood in the late Arpadian Age on the hills located several hundred meters from each other.
At Gyál 10, 78 objects came to light; we were able to explore four the 12-13th century Arpadian houses, medieaval and early Modern Age wells, pits, ditches. At Gyál 3, 212 objects from the 2-4* century, Arpadian Age and early Modern Age were found, out of which 124 were ditches, 39 pits and wells, 16 ovens, and 27 dwelling houses.
In this study is presented seven Arpadian Age houses deepened half in the earth, out of which had been found funnels in six. These all start from the corner opposite the oven, 10-30 cm above the floor. Erzsébet Molnár explored very similar houses with funnel in the Arpadian Age settlement in Esztergom-Zsidód. These funnels also started from the corner opposite the oven, reconstructed as primitive chimney for smoke abatement of the house.
Rectangular pit was founded in the house quarter opposite the furnace in three cases out of seven in the houses of Gyál. Based on the traces found on the side of the pits we concluded that they were possibly storing pits covered with boards. The oven made from clay balls, built posteriorly in the first house is unique in the domestic archaeological materials.
Nasal bone hypoplasia-aplasia in human osteoarcheological samples
The nasal bones are products of the triangular area of the frontonasal process. Developmental delay of this area can result in hypoplasia or aplasia of the nasal bones. This can be unilateral or bilateral, symmetrical or asymmetrical. Sometimes this anomaly is associated with premaxilla hypoplasia and appears as a part of syndroma.
In this study we present different nasal bone defects on skulls caused by developmental malformations. We found bilateral aplasia (on skull of Infantia II.), unilateral aplasia (on skull of adult female) and unilateral hypoplasia (on skull of adult male and adult female). The anomaly was associated with unilateral premaxilla aplasia in case of the Infantia II. Comparing the previous literature and our findings, we can say that the relative incidence of nasal bone aplasia/hypoplasia is same on the right side and the left sides and the same in males and females.
The nasal bones defects have been studied in the skeletal collection of the Department of Anthropology (University of Szeged, Hungary).
The paleopathological investigation has been carried out using gross morphology supported by radiographic and metric data.
The emergence of pectus excavatum in the 4th century and mediaeval anthropological material of Fenékpuszta
Out of the congenital chest deformities, the causing factor of the funnel-shaped chest is still unclear today. Though its course of inheritance is unknown, in certain families its accumulation can be traced. Examination of the disorders and anatomic variations of the sterna is important also on historical bone materials. This treatise presents two new findings with funnel-shaped chest from a 4th century graveyard near Fenékpuszta Erőd and the late mediaeval grave no. 44 of Fenékpuszta, Pusztaszentegy házi-dűlő.
Verletzungen und Erkrankungen der spätrömischen Bevölkerung von Esztergom, Kossuth Straße
Das Gräberfeld von Esztergom, Kossuth Staße wurde von der Bevölkerung der römischen Siedlung Solva zwischen Ende des 3. und Ende des 4. Jahrhunderts benutzt. Während der Ausgrabungen in den Jahren 1992, 1994-95 wurde ungefähr 40 % des ehemaligen Gräberfeldes erschlossen. 18 Kinder (10-14 Jahre) und 56 Erwachsene (15-x Jahre), darunter 36 Männer und 20 Frauen bildeten die europide Bevölkerung des Gräberfeldabschnittes. Die meisten Männer starben zwischen 50-54, die meisten Frauen zwischen 45-49 Jahren. Dank des guten Erhaltungszustandes des Knochenmaterials kann neben der Beschreibung der Verletzungen und pathologischen Veränderungen auch ihre Häufigkeit untersucht werden.
Verletzungen durch Schwerthiebe konnten nicht wahrgenommen werden, die Quetschungen und Brüche waren in allen Fällen geheilt. Bei beiden Geschlechtern kommen am häufigsten Schädelquetschungen vor, die bei den Frauen nur am Scheitelbein, bei den Männern auch am Stirnbein zu finden sind. Die Zahl der Brüche ist bei den Männern höher. Bei den Männern finden wir sowohl an den oberen als auch an den unteren, bei den Frauen nur an den oberen Gliedern Brüche. Bei den Männern kamen die meisten Brüche an den Wirbeln, bei den Frauen an den Rippen vor. Gebrochene Wirbel gab es bei den Frauen nicht. Bei den Kindern kamen weder Schädelquetschungen noch Knochenbrüche vor.
Entwicklungsanomalien zeigten sich meistens an der Wirbelsäure, an den anderen Skelettknochen kamen sie selten vor. Sakralisation oder Lumbalisation, spina bifida, os acromiale konnte bei den Frauen etwas häufiger beobachtet werden. Spina bifida entstand an den Wirbeln und den oberen Kreutzbeinsegmenten selten, aber die letzten zwei Segmenten des Kreutzbeines blieben fast in allen Fällen geöffnet. Bei den Männern häuften sich die Entwicklungsanomalien der Wirbelsäure sehr oft.
Die Hälfte der Männer und Frauen litt an Gelenkserkrankungen. Osteophytosis (am Rand der Wirbelkörper entstehen Knochenauswüchse) konnte an allen Abschnitten der Wirbelsäure in leichter und mittelschwerer Form wahrgenommen werden. An den Halswirbeln - besonders bei den Frauen - war diese Veränderung seltener, an den Rücken- und Lendenwirbeln nahm ihre Häufigkeit bedeutend zu. An den Halswirbeln erschienen Knochenauswüchse nicht vor 45 Jahren, an den Rücken- und Lendenwirbeln bildeten sie sich etwas früher, gegen 40 Jahre aus. Bei den Männern waren 2 oder 3, bei den Frauen nur 1 oder 2 Abschnitte der Wirbelsäure von Osteophytosis betroffen. Gelenkserkrankungen traten oft auch an den anderen Skelettknochen (Osteoarthritis) - besonders bei den Männern - auf. Osteoarthritis war bei allen Personen - mit Ausnahme eines einzigen Grabes - immer mit Osteophytosis verbunden. Osteoarthritis meldete sich schon gegen 40 Jahre, aber die Zahl der betroffenen Personen nahm erst nach 45-50 Jahren bedeutend zu.
Cribra orbitalia bildete sich bei jedem zweiten Kind aus. Die geringfügige Krümmung an den Knochen der unteren Glieder der Erwachsenen weist auf Mangel des Vitamins-D hin.
Periostitis (Knochenhautentzündung) zählte bei den Männern zu einer häufigen Erkrankung, die sich meistens in leichter Form an den Unterschenkelknochen zeigte. Nur bei einem Mann war die Erkrankung so schwer, daß sich die Entzündung nicht nur auf die Unterschenkelknochen, sondern auch auf die Schenkel-, Becken- und Unterarmknochen erstreckte. Bei Frauen konnte Periostitis sehr selten beobachtet werden. Bei einem Kind führte Knochenmarkentzündung zum Tode. Bei 3 weiteren Kindern deuten die labirynthartigen Abdrücke im Inneren des Hinterhauptbeines auf Gehirnhautentzündung hin. Gutartiger Knochentumor bildete sich bei einer Frau am Scheitelbein heraus.
Dank des guten Erhaltungszustandes des Knochenmaterials konnten im spätrömischen Gräberfeld von Esztergom, Kossuth Straße zahlreiche Verletzungen und pathologische Veränderungen beschrieben werden. Die Kinder waren hauptsächlich von verschiedenen Infektionen betroffen, deren meistens tödliche Komplikationen (Knochenmark- und Gehirnhautentzündung in vier Fällen) - bei mehr als 20% der Kinder - nachgewiesen werden konnte. Die Erwachsenen erlitten oft Verletzungen (Schädelquetschungen und Knochenbrüche). Von den pathologischen Veränderungen ist die große Zahl der Entwicklungsanomalien der Wirbelsäure hervorzuheben. Stoffwechselstörungen und Entzündungen hinterließen Spuren an den Knochen aller Altersklassen. Mit dem Voranschreiten des Lebensalters - nach 40, aber besonders nach 45-50 Jahren - meldeten sich Gelenkserkrankungen, die sich - aufgrund der Angaben - zuerst an der Wirbelsäure, dann an den Gliederknochen herausbildeten.
Paleopathological alterations in an Avar age skeletal series (Szarvas 68.)
The Avars are one of the most remarkable populations of the Migration Period Hungary. The 7-9th century series of Szarvas represents an outstanding example of Avar age skeletal populations with grave goods, like a runic scripted needle-case. Our attention was directed to this series by the relatively high number of linear hypoplasia, detected in a previous study.
It is generally accepted that taphonomical processes might largely influence the efficiency of paleopathological evaluation, therefore a bone quantification index was utilized during the examination of the skeletal collection.
The macro-morphological examination of the 423 skeletons was completed with radiological, and in few cases, with paleomicrobiological analyses. Special attention was paid to infectious alterations, particularly to tuberculosis, which usually has a relatively high prevalence in Avar Age series.
Our sample also shows a high number of infectious changes, however, they do not include any „classical", advanced stage ТВ cases. The detected alterations are rather atypical, early stage forms, like endocranial alterations, observed mainly in children and young adults, often in association with other post-cranial pathological conditions. However, the diagnosis of tuberculosis was also confirmed in an aged male individual on the basis of paleomicrobiological analyses carried out on calcified pleura remains.
Beside infections, degenerative changes can be seen most frequently in the series both in the spine, and, concerning extra-vertebral locations, in the hip and shoulder joint. Among developmental anomalies, the presence of „butterfly vertebra" is worth mentioning.
The paleostomatological investigation of the anthropological findings from the Avar period cemeteries of Toponár and Fészerlak
The anthropological findings of two cemeteries from the late Avar period (Toponár and Fészerlak, Hungary) were examined from the aspect of dental health in this study. Both cemeteries derive from the 8th century. According to the earlier anthropological studies and the archeological findings, the inhabitants of the two cemeteries were anthropologically similar to each other and they shared the same culture, but those who were buried at Fészerlak represented the lower classes of the Avar society and the people of Toponár belonged to the higher ranks in this system.
We tried to determine the level of dental health in both populations and then we compared them. With these data we made an attempt to give information about the nutritional habits and the living conditions of these people. We also wanted to find out whether there were any differences in the examined paleostomatological characters (and in the way of life or in the way of nutrition) between the two socially different people.
Only those with permanent dentition (the juvenile, adult, mature and senile males and females) were drawn into the examination. The sample size was 70 individuals in the case of Toponár and 96 individuals in the case of Fészerlak
The frequency and progress of carious lesions, cysts and abscesses, the number of premortem lost teeth and the level of abrasion in the case of the full dentititon were registered. The number of incisors and canines with enamel hypoplasia was determined, too.
The data were compared with x2-probe. The statistical analyses were carried out among the different age-groups and sexes within the populations and between the two series. The general status of dentition was characterised with several dental indices (CE, CRE, advanced CRE) in both populations.
The patological alterations were very frequent among the inhabitants of Toponár and Fészerlak. The number of carious lesions was particularly high. The possible reasons for this result were the lack of dental hygiene and the carbohydrate-rich nutrition. We couldn't find any differences in the examined paleostomatological characters between the two series with the exception of the enamel hypoplasia which was significantly more frequent in the sample of Fészerlak. The possible cause of this result was that the inhabitants of Fészerlak (the people who represented the lower ranks) could eat less proteins and vitamins, which are very important for the proper development of teeth, than that of Toponár.
Anthropological Analysis of the Human Skeletal Material Inherited from Vilmos Lipp's Excavations in the Keszthely Region
At the end of the last century Lipp, Vilmos uncovered more than 6000 graves that might have belonged to Keszthely Culture, the graves of the cemeteries of Fortress Keszthely-Fenékpuszta and Keszthely-Dobogó among them. Lipp's crew followed the routine practice of their days: the only parts of skeletons taken into storage were well-preserved skulls, all the other bones were reburied without examination. We analysed 102 skulls from these excavations. The findings of the two burial sites were evaluated as a combined entity, as the archeological documentation did not indicate clearly their accurate origin. We inherited only a very limited amount of well-preserved anthropological material of Keszthely Culture, therefore the results of our present analysis could provide a significant contribution to the general anthropological understanding of the populations bearing this culture.
The population had a unified anthropological image according to the results of our analysis. The gracile Mediterranean type dominated both men and women, associated with an oval shaped brain-case in view from above. Female skulls were extremely small, some of them fell almost in the category microcephal. Male skulls also presented female characteristics as another typical feature of the population. Nordic and Cromagnoid types were almost completely missing from the population. A few craniae bearing Mongoloid features turned up both with men and women.
Opinions disagreed on the origins of this population. Kovrig stated that some surviving romanized indigenous population created the Keszthely Culture in the Avar Period, and this population kept its cultural independence after the Avar conquest too. According to the view of Kiss - based on the jewelry different to early Avar finds - a population fragment of unknown origin and of late antique culture settled in a comparatively small territory of the Avar Empire. The fortress was inhabited partly by some surviving late antique population and partly by immigrated Western Germanic people according to Sági, and the geographical position of the Fenékpuszta fortress made the establishment of vivid trade links with Byzantium and Italy possible for them. Müller concluded that in 568 the Langobard in general - with a considerable portion of the romanized population of Pannónia - moved to Italy, but the late antique population of the Keszthely region stayed put, and the fortress of Fenékpuszta was their center. According to Lengyel's osseochemical analysis the population of Fenékpuszta fortress was made up of two layers in the years between 568-630. The smaller group was made up of the practically grave- goodless burials of the local late antique population, the bigger one consisted of the graves of the immigrants of 568 with their typical finds. Some enforced reason ended the life of the Fenékpuszta settlement sometime around the year 630. The idea was forwarded by Kovrig that at the beginning of the 7th Century - after some large scale destruction - the inhabitants left the fortress and lived on at the site of the town of Keszthely. This could be a possible explanation for the unprecedented appearance of "the peple of basketed earings" at the beginning of the 7th Century.
In our view the appearance of a long headed, gracile Mediterranean population on this scale could only be attributed to immigration from the South. When looking for local foundations we examined the Roman Period population of Keszthely- Dobogó: it turned out to be decisively Cromagnoid and Nordic. This population was foundamentally different to the skulls uncovered by Lipp's excavations. If we do accept these gracile Mediterranean skulled men and women as the bearers of Keszthely Culture, then this culture probably got with a considerable number of ethnic groups into the area of Keszthely from the Mediterranean region.
An anthropologie survey of the 12-16th century graveyard of Fenékpuszta (Pusztaszentegyházi-dűlő) (Preliminary publication)
According to the anthropological series surveyed, the picture of the late mediaeval man shows uniform features. A survey of the grave no. 104 of the graveyard around the church explored at the end of the 1990s by Péter Straub and Robert Müller supplies us with new contributions to the anthropological image of the age. In addition to determination of the anthropological basic data, os-theometric and paleopathologic examination, as well as demographic analysis have been carried out. The anthropological particulars fit into the anthropological features of the age. The large number of pathologic cases is striking, out of which, beside the generally observable physical stress, the recovered fractions and injuries, a case with funnel-shaped chest and the (inflammatory) clinical pictures resulting in reossifing of articles are to be underlined.