The Political Identity.
The present article tackles the problem of political identity from a philosophical point of view, building on various theories of and contributions to specific (sub)disciplines within sociology, political science and discourse analysis. It is based primarily on the hermeneutical tradition, rather than on an analytical view of language. It puts forward a tri-polar model of political identity, based mainly on the We/They opposition and several conceptualisations of discursiveness. When developing this model I departed from Koselleck's concept of "acting communities" and focused on the discursive aspects of the We/They opposition. Considering this opposition as being discursive, the paper presents a conception of political communities as communities that are continuously delimiting themselves by a beneficial combination of self-assertive actions and self-denominations, which are permanently related to what is seen from the point of view of the respective communities as 'They'.
The Electoral Success of Parties Representing the Hungarian Minority (1990-2004)
The main goal of this paper is to examine how the institutional distribution of political power within the party system of a country affects the share of power that can be captured by a minority on national level. (Such an approach relies on the empirical observation that in most parts of the world ethnic/national minorities compete for /political/ resources through the parties that claim to represent them.) To accomplish its task, the paper draws on theories of comparative government and party system theory, while targeting–as sample–post-Communist countries bordering Hungary and featuring Hungarian minorities, i.e., Croatia, Romania, Serbia–Montenegro, Slovakia, Slovenia and Ukraine.
Parties representing Hungarian minorities are analysed in order to provide a tentative institutional(ist) explanation of the electoral success of ethnoregionalist parties. The account focuses on systemic variables making up the participation dimension of political systems, more precisely, the nature of the electoral system (used for electing the lower chamber of national legislatures) and party system format. Apart from delineating a theoretical framework that helps to disentangle the relationship between the three variables, the paper offers a (new) definition of ethnoregionalist parties, too, as a means for delimiting their largerŻfor instance, all-EuropeanŻuniverse. Moreover, it presents the theoretical basis of a triple test designed for (dis)proving the ethnoregionalist character of political organisations and performs it on twenty-eight Hungarian political organisations to show that only twenty-one qualify as ethnoregionalist (parties). Finally, the paper concludes that party system fragmentation is indeed a salient factor of ethnoregionalist electoral success. However, the quantitative method employed herein failed to confirm the strong, expected theoretical relationship between electoral system proportionality and the dependent variable. Hence, the paper hints, as directions for future research, to other possibilities for exploring the latter relationship.
The City of Eros. Two Funeral Speeches on Athenian Democracy
Through the comparative study of the Periclean Funeral Oration and the Menexenus of Plato our study tries to evidenciate a metaphorical shift thus far overlooked by various reconstructions of ancient Athens' democratic ideology. In its first part it explores the possible background and implications of a rhetorical device applied by Pericles that presents the citizen as lover of the polis. In the second it focuses on those specific stylistic and contentual changes of the polemical Platonic text, which differentiate it from its model. The result of this confrontation, i. e. the substitution of the erotic theoretical model for democratic relations with the patterns of family ties could serve as a starting-point for the interpretation of Plato's critique of democracy.
The Hermeneutical Problem of the Speech and of the Speaking
Because the interpretation is basically a spea-king with the text, so because the understanding and the interpretation are also done linguistically, Gadamer is seeing the language's essence in the act of speaking. Every conversation supposes a common language, or in other terms, it creates a common language. Gadamer sees the word as defined by the being, namely that word which passes the truth in. In the "word", as language's basic form, goes on the truth and by that the word is the truthhappening's place. By Augustine's belief, the original conversation or thinking is something from within, it is the language of the heart. This inner talk does not have material or amative form yet, it has only intellectual aspect, which here only means that it has not taken the amative or historical languages form yet. Platon calls the thinking the soul's inner talking with itself. The structure of the conversation becomes obvious here. We call it conversation because it goes on like question and answer, because we ask ourselves just like we ask the others and we talk to ourselves as we say something to the others. Augustine already advert to this kind of speech. Everybody is somehow, a conversation with itself. Gadamer is saying that the conversation is on "art" in that hermeneutically meaning of word that the creation as happening is an expression.
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