Finds of the Prehistoric Settlement from Erősd (Ariuşd ) in the Hungarian National Museum
The subject of this study is an archaeological material provening from the late neolithic – early copper age settlemen of Erősd, eponyme site of the Cucuteni – Ariuşd culture. Discovered at the end of the 19th century, the site bacame famous after the excavations carried out by Ferenc László, former director of the Sekler National Museum, in 1907–1913 and 1925.
The material presented here is the result of the excavations from 1913, carried out by the initiative and financial support of the Hungarian National Museum. It contains the finds of the Cucuteni – Ariuşd Culture: pottery, anthropomorphic and zoomorphic figurines, stone and bone objects from different levels of the settlement. In the first part of the study the author presents the history of the excavations in 1913, the cooperation between László and Lajos Márton, giving then a general view of the published material.
The Mansion of Mezőpanit (Pănet)
It is a well-known fact that – because of the agitated history of this region – there are just a few buildings conserved in their original form to the present day. The author – based on a conscription from 1760, preserved in the archive of the Transsylvanian Museum Society – presents a destroyed mansion, the one built in Mezőpanit between 1670-1673, probably by Boldizsár Macskási, an influential politician of the Apafi-period. After his death the mansion remained in the possession of the Macskási family for a while, as the inscription preserved on the northern wall mentions the restaurations made by Krisztina Macskási and her husband István Bethlen around the year 1728. Soon after this it became the heritage of the Bethlen and Kornis families. After the presentation of the supposed possessors of the mansion, the author tries to manage an imaginary reconstruction of the building, based on the dates offer the the conscription. Originally the manor-house had two levels. On the ground-floor the scribes hav found five rooms and a vault, on the first floor the prominent portico (with boarded ceiling and an inscription which mentions the names of the builders and the year 1673), the so-called „palace", and two other rooms. The dimensions of building, the use of the boarded ceiling as a decoration shows that the mansion of the Macskási's from Mezőpanit was a significant example of the Transsylvanian late-renaissance architecture.
The „Floral Songs" in the Folklore
The „virágének"-s (so called 'floral songs') are love songs of medieval origin in which the lovers refer to each other metaphorically as flowers. The study surveys the history of this specifically Hungarian folklore genre (that does not exist under this name in the folklore of other European peoples) from the end of the 15th century until our days. The oldest records of „virágének"-s date back to the codices of the 15–16th centuries, later the songs are also found in handwritten songbooks. The Hungarian folklore collections published beginning from the middle of the 19th century also contain these songs, although according to the author of the study the percentage of the genre within the bulk of the love songs is merely 1%.
Reading Reményik, through the Mirror of „Helikon"
The evaluation of Sándor Reményik's works seems to have arrived to a new stage. During his life and right after his death he enjoyed an almost unanimous success. Later on, he was disclaimed by the Stalinist dogmatism. After the discrete changes in his interpretation during the seventies and eighties, and after the 1989 turn, his poetry was seen again from one particular point of view, although different from those preceding it. A thorough analysis of the Reményik-heritage would make possible to emphasize the multiple values of these works. These values manifest themselves through several different literary genres. The review „Erdélyi Helikon" (1928–1944) is an important source from this point of view, Reményik being one of its most important authors. It is important to take into consideration the 111 poems (one of which being a translation) published here by Reményik, and also the 27 critical essays that may prove to be an important part of Reményik's oeuvre.
Sándor Kövesdi Boér: The Roustabout of Profance Dramatics
The study deals with an almost anonymous playwright's dramatic work, which has been considered lost so far. The saved texts change their writer's position on the stage of literature- and theatre history. Sándor, Boér Kövesdi began writing when the professional Hungarian theatre in Kolozsvár started. Only once did he succeed in publishing his dramas, (In: Erdélyi Játékos Gyűjtemény. Kolozsvár,1793), but he continued writing for the following twenty years. Under the influence of patriotic enthusiasm and the opening stage, he had dramatised all the scenes of the Hungarian history which he thought to be appropriate for dramatic devise, with the very purpose to publish or stage them. His great undertaking to dramatize the Hungarian history had resulted in 32 sentimental historical plays.