"Two Elections in Hungary". The Social Composition of the Members of Parliament in the Early 20th Century
The paper describes the social composition of the Hungarian parliament at the beginning of the 20th century. Research has found no discernible social differences among the various groups of the political elite the sociological character of which did not significantly differ. Taking this as a starting point we provide a statistical analysis of the members of parliament. We used national assembly data from 1901 and 1905 to carry out the comparative analysis of the members of parliament coming from different political backgrounds. We processed the database – containing nearly 600 members of parliament elected on these two occasions and 34 statistical variables for each – with the SPSS program. As a result, we could provide a statistical basis for the former findings of social historiography. According to our study, the social composition of the two parliaments of 1901 and 1905 were not significantly different, the political elite was sociologically uniform. Though the outcomes of the two elections were dominantly different, this was not discernible in the statistical indicators. The traditional political elite, the aristocracy and the former nobility were heavily represented in the parliament. The vast majority of the members of parliament had university degree, primarily from law, while intellectuals from other important fields of economy and culture were almost completely missing from the traditionally lawyer- dominated national assembly. When it came to political career, graduation in Budapest was an important factor. Two thirds of the members of parliament had spent some time in central government or local government administration before embarking on a career in politics.
The Augustineum and Hungary, 1816–1918
The aim of this study is to outline the Hungarian connections of the Augustineum (Caesareo- Regium Sublimioris Presbyterorum Educationis ad Sanctum Augustinum Institutum Viennense, in Hungarian: Szent Ágostonról nevezett Bécsi Felsőbb Papnevelő Intézet), a special institution of ecclesiastical elite education of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. This task is very important. Neither the history of the Augustineum, nor the role it played within the Monarchy can be discussed without an analysis of the Hungarian contribution. During the existence of the institution between 1816 and 1918, 372 students were admitted from the dioceses of the Holy Hungarian Crown. This amounts to about 35% of the total number of students. On average, there were 8 to 10 students coming from Hungary annually, but only 6 in the years 1824–1848. The number of Latin-Rite students was 321. Among these, the Province of Esztergom was represented by 146 persons, the Provinces of Kalocsa-Bács and Zágráb by 118 (61 from Croatian dioceses), and the Province of Eger by 43. There were also 14 monks studying largely at their own expense. The number of students of the Greek Rites was 51.
In the selection of the students the archbishop of Esztergom as the prince-primate of the country played a fundamental role. After the first decades of a different practice, he was the only one who could make a proposal to the monarch for the admission of new students. Yet the dioceses of the country were represented in appropriate proportions. The slightly overrepresented status of the Province of Esztergom (and the arch-diocese, 35 persons) can be explained by the fact that its seminar in Vienna, the Pazmaneum, provided suitable and readily available people for studies in higher education.
The Hungarian contribution to the operation of the Augustineum was proportionate to the number of Hungarian students. The income of the Abbey of Saint Benedict at Kaposfő, originally set aside fot this purpose, proved inadequate. The resulting deficit (39,234 Ft) in the 1820s was compensated for by the temporary addition of the income of the Abbey of Saint James at Zselic (14,415 Ft) as well as by decreasing the number of students. The financing was also supplemented by the estates of the vacant episcopacies (which were administered by the Treasury) and the Hungarian Religious Fund.
During the years of the Bach era and Dualism the Fund became a more significant contributor. For instance, in 1849 it allocated 4800 moneta conventualis for 8 persons, in 1883 8000 Forints for 8 persons, and in 1913 2000 Crowns per person to the Rector of the Augustineum. After 1867, financial support was granted, on application and for one year, by the Hungarian Ministry of Religion and Public Education, with the prince-primate's cooperation, through the joint Common Ministry of Finance in Vienna. Besides, the minister covered the expenses of one student from his own budget reserved for Greek Catholics. The history of Hungarian Catholicism in Modern Times cannot be understood without the impact of this supranational Habsburg institution. For instance, two prince-primates from the post-Compromise era were also closely associateed with it. One of them, Cardinal János Simor (1867–1891) was director of education in the Augustineum, while the other, Cardinal János Csernoch (1913–1927) was a student of the institution (1874). Instead of listing the several archbishops, bishops, owners of great benefices, scholars etc., here we have to be satisfied with stating our thesis. The years the major part of the Hungarian ecclesiastical elite spent at the Augustineum, in the direct vicinity of the imperial court, are responsible in the main for the strong commitment of the Hungarian clergy to the statechurch, sometimes even in opposition to Rome, and their adherence to the Habsburg dynasty even after the fall of the Monarchy.
Soldiers' Songs and the First World War
One of the major experiences of those who survived the First World War was the experience: "The soldiers are singing!". This is especially (but not exclusively) true for the first days of the war and the enlistment period. Soldiers' songs were an integral part of the cultural traditions of 19th-century men. The war changes the conditions of life not only for the members of the army but also for the whole society by recruiting a major part of the male population. Former soldiers' songs may pick up additional meanings and new songs may be composed. Our study of soldiers' songs from the First World War (that is those that were sang or collected at the time) shows that beside hatred, the defense of the country and putting the blame on the enemy, the main topics are conceit, manliness and courage. We have to remember that the army was traditionally seen as the symbol of transition from boy to man, the former members of the armed forces were to become full – male – members of the local communities.
Despite the fact that the majority of the songs sung in the First World War was connected to past events, primarily to the War of Independence of 1848–49, it seems that, unlike in Germany, self-sacrifice in the war became a less organic part of the national ideology in Hungary. The main topics are parting, being far away and the relations to the mother and the lover. I believe that the momentum in the War that created a sense of national identity was mourning and loss and not the myth of heroism.
France and Carlism, 1868–1874
The 19th century was eventful in both Spain and France. Although the diplomatic relations of the two countries had less and less to do with the "good neighbourhood" principle, the bordering zone of the Pyrenees always offered an asylum and a logistic base for those who were prosecuted by the regime, whether liberals under Ferdinand VII, royalists during the Liberal Triennium (1820–1823) or Carlists during the three Carlist Wars. Moreover, during the last Carlist War (1872–1876) the French, disappointed by the Empire and frightened by the Commune, showed a kind of sympathy towards the exiled Monarch whom they regarded as legitimate, and despite the diplomatic pressure from Madrid for the prosecution and deportation of the Pretender's supporters in the name of good neighbourhood, Paris and the French local authorities – including some notables, aristocrats and clergymen – received them with a kind of indulgence or even sympathy.
By evading the permanent and strict vigilance of the authorities and even the secret agents of Madrid, the Spanish political emigrants, supported by their French sympathizers, could continue in secret to organise their military activities, exchanging news with the Carlist newspaper El Cuartel Real, and smuggling weapons, munitions and war material through the Bidasoa river.
By 1876 this situation led to a kind of diplomatic tension between Paris and Madrid. But a radical change of attitude came with the new French president and its government which ordered the local authorities to collaborate more closely with their Spanish counterparts in handling the Carlist affair. The ambitious Spanish political trend that strove for the country's constitutional unity and the abolishment of the fueros by the Cortes thus coincided with the decline of the Carlist movement, and the last Carlist Pretender left the country for good.
"Carlism as a political tendency ended by dying in the emigration, not on the battlefields", says Gregorio Marańón.
Elmélet és módszer