Abstract: The study provides an onomastic data analysis of toponymic remnants of the Bakonybél Census. The findings are compared with the charecteristics of the toponymic material of four 11-13. century linguistically explored charters (TA, TÖ, SZA, GA). The settlement names in terms of their origin, collected according to their functional-semantic and structural features, will also be presented. Based on the examined corpus, it can be confirmed that the dominant settlement name type of the early Old Hungarian period was the one-component name formed from an anthroponym; among natural names, however, two-component names are also represented, most often with a geographical common word constituent. With regard to the genesis of names, it is possible to state that Hungarian name-giving dominated in the given period.
Keywords: historical toponomastics, medieval charters, early Old Hungarian period, linguistic-onomastic features
Abstract: As part of a study on the properties of the Gitskan pre-predicate element hlaa ‘just, now’, Matthewson et al. propose the hypothesis that “there is possibly such a thing as proximal aspect” (2019:45). In their interpretation, the meaning that a proximity marker can give to a sentence is ‘the temporal distance between the time of the event described by the predicate and the reference time is small’ (ibid.). In this study, I argue that Hungarian most ‘now’ and éppen ‘just’ can mark proximity when they are used together with the morphologically marked past tense and future time reference. Concerning the types of proximity, I distinguish two types: absolute and relative. Additionally, I show that most ‘now’ and éppen ‘just’ are relative proximity markers by comparing the grammatical behavior and meaning of most ‘now’ to the Gitskan element hlaa ‘just, now’. I argue that despite their differences, absolute and relative proximity markers can have the same formal semantic representation and that all differences between these two types of proximity markers are pragmatic in nature. To support this, I provide a formal semantic representation of Hungarian sentences containing the proximity markers most ‘now’ and éppen ‘just’.
Keywords: relative proximity, Hungarian, future time reference
Abstract: In my paper I discuss the code-switching habits of Hungarian university students from Transcarpathia studying in Hungary both in terms of their oral and online communication. My research examines the use of code-switching by participating university students in their own oral and online communication, the cases in which they switch between codes, and the types of attitudes associated with code-switching used in oral communication and online messages.
Keywords: bilingualism, code-switching, linguistic attitude, online communication, oral language use
Abstract: Productive preverb-verb patterns show which groups of verbs a preverb can be combined with, depending on its various senses. The aim of this paper is to extract these patterns using a method based on the corpus-driven study of ‘preverb - derivational suffix - argument frame’ triplets. First, I take a close look at the most common verb formations in Hungarian: new verbs can easily be created from nouns, verbs and by means of sound patterns. After that, I present the PREVCONS database containing 21,038 preverb-verb hapaxes. This resource makes it possible to explore the productive preverb-verb patterns by the accessibility of the triplets mentioned above. Finally, I describe an experiment which aims to represent the different senses of preverbs and the relationships between these senses in a network-like structure based on PREVCONS, in the form of an ontology.
Keywords: preverb, verbal particle, productive patterns, verb formation in Hungarian, ontology
Abstract: This study aims to compare the duration of affricate and nasal consonants in the Neapolitan and Turinese regional varieties of spoken Italian. The absolute duration of sounds was measured in a corpus of 100 affricates and nasals - which were then compared by their position in the word such as intervocalic, initial, CxV and VxC environments. This paper also considers the analysis of geminated sounds and raddoppiamento sintattico. After the analysis we can see significant differences in the two varieties: in 76% of the cases the Neapolitan variety represents longer consonant duration compared to the Turinese.
Keywords: affricates, nasals, duration, Neapolitan, Turinese
Abstract: As the speech act of offer neither falls within a clear illocutionary act nor has an explicit performative verb unlike other speech acts e.g. requests, advice, or warning, it is likely to be theoretically tricky. Based on this fact, offers will have mixed characteristics, which in turn, combine characteristics of different speech acts into one speech act. Since the investigation of offers is still very much in its infancy, this article is considered a theory-oriented one. It thus broadens the knowledge of prospective researchers for research purposes in the speech act of offer in different languages. Since this article reviews the speech act of offer theoretically, it is devoted to knowing how offers can be distinguished from other speech acts. It not only seeks to present an overview of how language philosophers, pragmatists and discourse analysts looked at offers as a speech act, but also adds a new aspect to the offering act pertaining to the potential arrangement of the offer characteristics by virtue of the two concepts 'salience' and 'performance'.
Keywords: speech acts, offers, politeness, salience, performance
Abstract: The aim of this methodological paper is to present an overview of research methods in speech act and politeness research, providing evidence in support of the triangulation approach (Jucker 2009; 2018). By taking research on politeness and speech acts as an example, I show that the respective advantages of different qualitative and quantitative methods such as corpus methods, roleplays, and interviews, are in fact complementary. Different research methods should be combined in the research design in order for the reliability and validity of the research tool to be increased and a fuller understanding of various pragmatic phenomena to be obtained.
Keywords: triangulation, questionnaires, roleplays, corpora, rating-scales, pragmatics
Abstract: This paper addresses variability in (im)politeness perceptions in Syrian Arabic by looking at four naturally-occurring apologies, based on Haugh and Chang’s (2019) study. It aims to investigate whether variability, if any, is related to perceptions of the (in)sincerity of the apology and the severity of the offense. The data were collected through an online survey, in which 77 native speakers of Syrian Arabic were asked to listen to four apology recordings and rate them on three 5-point Likert scales. The results of the statistical analysis show that there is variability in the participants’ perceptions of (im)politeness in only one of the recordings. Furthermore, it was noted that this variability in (im)politeness perceptions was paralleled by variability in terms of evaluations of the speaker’s sincerity in apologizing. The results also show that there is a positive correlation between perceptions of (im)politeness, (in)sincerity, and the severity of offense in all but one of the recordings. The overall results confirm Haugh and Chang’s (2019) observation that variability in (im)politeness perceptions is not limited to intercultural settings but can be found in intracultural discourse events.
Keywords: perceptions, (im)politeness, intracultural variability, intralinguistic variability, Syrian Arabic
Abstract: This paper aims to present the organization of the narrative text through a structural analysis of Guy de Maupassant’s Farce normande, with respect to the system of characters. The study of this short story examines the possible division of the text into sub-units at two different levels. At the first level, the textual analysis considers the elements of the surface, in connection with the division of the text into what we call scenes (scènes). At the second level, the narratological approach reflects the deep structure of the text, and offers a division into segments, using A. J. Greimas’s actantial model. This study shows a possible approach for the structural analysis of a literary text, and may serve as a basis for a typology on a larger corpus.
Keywords: narratology, actantial model, short story
Abstract: This paper aims to present three theories related to three different fields of linguistics: A. J. Greimas’s actantial model (narratology), Ph. Hamon’s semiological model of the characters in a story (semiology), and B. Combettes’ approach to coherence and thematic progression (text linguistics). The main objective is to give a general overview of each of these theories, but, in the meantime, it is also our task to detect their eventual connections, and to describe their role in the linguistic approach to the evaluation of the character (personnage) in literary texts.
Keywords: narratology, semiology, text linguistics, character
Tanulmány - Framing and reframing in public discourses
Abstract: This paper explores lexical items as possible units with which to detect equivalence-based framing, which shows how a given piece of information is framed. In line with frame semantics and figurative framing, individual words used metaphorically are discussed as tools to determine equivalence frames. The study applies conceptual metaphor theory (CMT) to determine the metaphors evoked by words referring to the demonstrators and their movement used in 81 news articles about the Women’s March in the USA published on the websites of the most widely circulated American newspapers between 2017 and 2019. The analysis reveals that lexical items (e.g., flood, sea, wave) evoking the WATER domain were used to frame the protest; this finding is in contrast to the use of words from other source domains, such as WAR, which are commonly used to frame demonstrations.
Keywords: equivalence-based framing; frame semantics; metaphorical framing; conceptual metaphor theory
Abstract: Since 2015, migration has been one of the most dominant topics of the Hungarian political and public agenda. In the light of migration statistics, the question of how the image of issuer regions - in this case Africa - in online news can be examined becomes relevant, since news portals serve as a source of information for society and indirectly affect recipients’ attitudes towards African citizens and Hungarian-African relations. The paper presents three methods that are suitable for the linguistically embedded analysis of media representation, thus outlining and categorising the frames used in online news and exploring the topics that the leading Hungarian news portals link to the continent. The study’s presumption, according to which Africa’s media representation operates with negative images, maintaining the phenomenon of Afro-pessimism, is based on the international literature. The sentiment, headline and verb analyses conducted on 382 news units revealed that Africa’s media representation does not exclusively operate with negative images, certain topics are framed explicitly positively. Nevertheless, the analysed leading news portals tend to convey a negative image of Africa.
Keywords: Africa, media, representation, framing, news
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyse how the phenomenon of Venezuelan immigration is framed in Colombian press, based on the articles of three well-known newspapers available online. The Venezuelan exodus is one of the most significant migration processes of our times, comparable to the one faced by Europe on the arrival of immigrants coming from Northern Africa and the Middle East. Since there is, at the time of writing, still no research dealing with the portrayal of immigration in Colombian newspapers, our work should be considered as purely exploratory, while the dimensions of the study preclude us from offering representative results. This paper identifies and analyses different framing strategies, such as the importance of nominational strategies, the presence or absence of figurative language, and the agency of the verbs used.
Keywords: immigrants, corpus-study, framing, collocations, metaphor
Abstract: Metaphorical representations of the US CONGRESS have been discussed by Stephen Frantzich (2013: 157), whose corpus included 650 political cartoons spanning the last forty years. With the help of content analysis he concludes that the most frequent metaphors are linked to source domains like ANIMALS, SPORTS, TOOLS AND MACHINES, BEHAVIORS, HISTORICAL, LITERARY FIGURES, and JOB HOLDERS. However, metaphorical representations of HUNGARIAN PARLIAMENT have not yet been studied. This paper reveals the recurring thematic frames of political cartoons that refer directly to HUNGARIAN PARLIAMENT. Furthermore, it also presents the metaphoric source domains of this target in context with its specific manifestations. It is maintained that similarities can be observed between the reported metaphors of the US Congress and those of the Hungarian Parliament as both targets belong to the realm of political discourse. The Hungarian corpus (a total of 91 cartoons) was collected from the satirical magazine Ludas Matyi from 1989 and 1990, a time when parliamentary democracy was established, the Hungarian Republic proclaimed, and the new government elected. The results show that the conceptual metaphors POLITICS IS WAR and POLITICS IS SPORT which are often used in political discourse, generate a high number of FIGHT and SPORT SCENES, especially in the year of the election, 1990 when the PARLIAMENT was mostly conceptualized as a FIELD.
Keywords: thematic frame, metaphoric source, Hungarian Parliament, political cartoon, multimodality