Abstract: In my study I compare the language attitude of Subcarpathian college/university students, learning in Hungary and in Ukraine. I make an attempt to answer the question, what do the college and university students, involved in my study think about the effects of contact and dialectical phenomena coming from bilingualism. Besides that, I am curious, that from their own point of view in which extent do these peculiarities occur in their use of language. According to my presumptions, in the language use of the Subcarpathian-Hungarians, who study in Ukraine, there is a higher possibility of the occurrence of dialectical features and the effects of contact, and they judge it more positively than those Subcarpathian-Hungarian students, who try to gear their language use to Hungarian in a monolingual environment.
Keywords: bilingualism, dialectical phenomenon, language attitude, online communication, spoken language
Abstract: Language is used to communicate differently in various cultures, but is universally used to exchange rational information. Languages are also used to communicate interpersonal information; the information being communicated is both truthful and deceptive. Previous research suggests that there are several linguistic cues of deception when someone is lying. The present research tries to replicate and apply these cues to speakers of the Indonesian language. Thus, the aim of this research is to find out some linguistic cues of deception in Indonesian language use. The method used in this research was an interview of ten participants. The participants were asked to provide two stories based on their personal experiences; truthful and deceptive stories. Data obtained were then analyzed by calculating the mean and standard deviation to get value discriminating the two stories. The result indicates that some cues were significantly different in two stories. The cues are word quantity, verb quantity, sentence quantity, third person pronoun, group reference, and self-reference. The result shows that linguistic based cues of category of quantity, uncertainty and non-immediacy are the most obvious discrimination in truthful and deceptive information.
Keywords: cues, deception, lie, Indonesian
Abstract: This paper aims to present strategies of verbal agression in different Hungarian political debate shows. In the first part of the paper I define the notions of aggression and verbal aggression, relaying on approaches from socialphychology and linguistics.. I also present the features of the semi-institutional discourse type under study and the corpus of the research. In the second part of the paper I investigate the language use and the linguistic tools of discourse participants. Based to the data, I differentiate three types of strategies which give rise to verbal aggressiveness. The suggested strategies may reveal the speaker”s intentions and motivations behind verbal aggression in this particular type of discourse.
Keywords: political debate show, semi-institutional discourse, verbal aggression, verbal aggression strategies
Abstract: This paper demonstrates how the parallel examination of distributional data and frame semantic information can expose word senses that are not documented in FrameNet. In our case study, we compare the distributional features of the word crime to its properties stored in the FrameNet database also considering dictionary data that we find in three online monolingual dictionaries. Our analysis indicates that crime has senses that are absent from FrameNet. The five senses that we identify can be separated on the basis of (a) frame hierarchies, (b) frame elements, (c) syntactic and semantic data extracted from corpora using lexicographical tools and (d) distributional similarity. Annotated examples are provided to demonstrate each sense.
Keywords: crime, FrameNet, distributional semantics, lexicographic relevance, Sketch Engine
Abstract: This research paper aims at investigating Gricean theory of conversational implicature and its application to Jordanian Arabic employed in Facebook offers for travel and tourism as well as ‘Open Market’ real estate offers. It seeks to identify how conversational implicatures get conveyed. To achieve the objective of this paper, data were collected from Facebook and ‘Open Market’ website. The offers were analyzed in a qualitative-quantitative method, so the data were calculated-tabulated in order to find out if there were striking descriptive-statistical differences among flouting of the four maxims. An in-depth qualitative analysis found that there were a range of purposes for flouting all the four maxims of conversation. Meanwhile, all of the purposes were in line with a bid to persuade offerees in offers. The quantitative analysis was then applied and revealed that quality was the most frequently flouted maxim in Facebook offers while manner was the most frequently flouted one in ‘Open Market’ offers. The content of the offered thing was finally found to relate to a huge divergence in statistical analyses. Regardless, the researcher formulated a hypothesis that conversational implicatures in advertisements tend to be universal. Hopefully, this paper will contribute to the field of internet pragmatics in advertising discourse.
Keywords: conversational implicature, maxims, flouted, Jordanian Arabic, Facebook offers, ‘Open Market’ offers.
Abstract: Arabic wh-clefts use a strategy that involves a focused XP in the initial position, followed by the pronoun hu ‘he’ or the past simple copula kaan ‘was’, and a relative clause introduced by a wh-phrase or the relative marker lla ‘that’. This schema was claimed by different Arab scholars to match English clefts. In this paper, I show that such an account is problematic and that this construction shows specificational pseudocleft properties, such as reversibility and connectivity. Furthermore, reversibility will be shown to be superficial and that the two structures highlighting wh<XP and XP<wh orders have two different underlying structures, i.e. two different types of specificational pseudoclefts. Besides, an analysis will also be provided for the pronoun which appears in copular sentences and pseudoclefts as a relator as defined in Den Dikken (2006).
Keywords: Syntax, Clefts, Pseudoclefts, Arabic, Copular sentences
Abstract: In the present paper we take a close look at the syntactic and semantic restrictions imposed on atelic unaccusative verbs occurring with a cognate object-like nominal in Hungarian. The starting point for our discussion is the proposal in Farkas (2019), according to which in Hungarian there are no objects which are literally cognate with the intransitive verb they accompany; instead, there are three classes of so-called pseudo-objects which fulfil the function of the aspectual cognate object in this language. We show that atelic unaccusative verbs in Hungarian are compatible, first and foremost, with members of one particular class of pseudo-objects, namely the ones that express or highlight the degree of the change of the event expressed by the verb such as (egy) nagyot ‘(one) big.ACC’, (egy) hatalmasat ‘(one) huge.ACC’ and (egy) óriásit ‘(one) gigantic.ACC’. We also demonstrate that, as opposed to the claims made in the literature, these verbs are not completely unacceptable with the light pseudo-object egyet ‘one.ACC’.
Keywords: atelic unaccusative verb, pseudo-object, cognate object, VP, Hungarian
Abstract: In this paper I discuss word-formation with nicht- in German. It is debated in the literature whether nicht- is to be analysed as a prefix or rather as a compound member in words like Nichtmitglied or nichtöffentlich. This article discusses the categorization of nicht- on the basis of criteria suggested in the literature for the identification of affixes and compound members in general. It is shown that the arguments for a compound-member analysis of nicht- (such as the fact that nicht also occurs as a free form in German) are unconvincing. Rather, it is proposed that nicht- is better categorized as a prefix.
Keywords: word-formation, affix, compounding, derivation
Abstract: This study reports on the findings of a contrastive analysis of the changes in the semantic prototypes of basic perception verbs in the history of six European languages: English, German, French, Spanish, Italian, and Hungarian. All verbs found to have functioned as basic perception verbs during a period in one of the languages were included in the research, not only those that are basic perception verbs today. My primary aim was to find historical linguistic data on the cultural role and conceptualization of the five sensory modalities in – the broadly understood – Western society. The patterns that can be observed in the instances of semantic change point to the same domains that Sweetser (1990: 23-48) has found to be associated with vision, audition, gustation, and tactition. Concerning olfaction, its linguistic coding shows three characteristics: olfactory verbs tend to get semantically generalized; the conceptualization of an olfactory event is closer to the “passive frame”, as coined by Kövecses (2019); olfactory vocabulary has a strong tendency to acquire negative connotations. Olfaction’s culturally assigned role seems to delineate a subordinate, rather unconscious and uncontrollable sensory modality that is often linked with negative emotions.
Keywords: semantic change, perception verbs, etymology, semantic prototype, diachrony
Abstract: This study investigates developing linguistic prestige of the standard/local varieties in bidialectal kindergarteners whose linguistic environment has a high level of interference between two varieties of different social prestige. To date, little is known about linguistic preferences of kindergarteners who are exposed to a wide range of speech forms on a continuum of the standard (high-status) variety and a local (low-status) dialect. Particularly the emergence of metalinguistic awareness of the prestige of the varieties in a highly interfering bidialectal environment is understudied. 77 Hungarian 5-7-year-olds participated in a VGT–MGT quantitative experiment along with a brief qualitative data collection. A significant preference for the high-status variety and an emerging metalinguistic awareness of the different prestige of two varieties have been found in bidialectal children as early as age 6.
Keywords: bidialectal kindergarteners, local dialect, metalinguistic awareness, standard variety, status-based preference
Abstract: After the withdrawal of the United Kingdom, the European Union is more aware than ever that it necessitates an imminent reform. The present paper fits into the pending reconceptualisation of the European Union’s legal and institutional system. Halfway between a confederation and a federation, European legislature may have direct effects on its citizens, therefore, transparency is a central element of legitimate governance in the EU. However, while the European Union has long been struggling to respect transparency through its ambitious policy of multilingualism, the ever-growing number of official/national languages puts EU institutions under enormous pressure. Since it is impossible to respect integral multilingualism under all circumstances, European institutions started to adopt ad hoc strategies implicitly. Fearing the explosion of the EU’s linguistic ‘powder keg’ the language regime of the European Union has developed a series of contradictory aspects. Along with the critical review of the European Union’s language policy, this paper raises the possibility to adopt Euro-English, an ascending, independent variety of English peculiar to Brussels bureaucracy for institutional communication. It aims to provide impetus for a comprehensive reflection on a European language policy that is capable of reconciling transparency and efficiency.
Keywords: transparency, efficiency, EU language policy; individual multilingualism; linguistic diversity; Euro-English