a borítólapra  Súgó epa Copyright 
Argumentum16. (2020.)



  • Anita Kiss :

    Abstract: In my study I compare the language attitude of Subcarpathian college/university students, learning in Hungary and in Ukraine. I make an attempt to answer the question, what do the college and university students, involved in my study think about the effects of contact and dialectical phenomena coming from bilingualism. Besides that, I am curious, that from their own point of view in which extent do these peculiarities occur in their use of language. According to my presumptions, in the language use of the Subcarpathian-Hungarians, who study in Ukraine, there is a higher possibility of the occurrence of dialectical features and the effects of contact, and they judge it more positively than those Subcarpathian-Hungarian students, who try to gear their language use to Hungarian in a monolingual environment.

    Keywords: bilingualism, dialectical phenomenon, language attitude, online communication, spoken language

  • Ahmad Adha :

    Abstract: Language is used to communicate differently in various cultures, but is universally used to exchange rational information. Languages are also used to communicate interpersonal information; the information being communicated is both truthful and deceptive. Previous research suggests that there are several linguistic cues of deception when someone is lying. The present research tries to replicate and apply these cues to speakers of the Indonesian language. Thus, the aim of this research is to find out some linguistic cues of deception in Indonesian language use. The method used in this research was an interview of ten participants. The participants were asked to provide two stories based on their personal experiences; truthful and deceptive stories. Data obtained were then analyzed by calculating the mean and standard deviation to get value discriminating the two stories. The result indicates that some cues were significantly different in two stories. The cues are word quantity, verb quantity, sentence quantity, third person pronoun, group reference, and self-reference. The result shows that linguistic based cues of category of quantity, uncertainty and non-immediacy are the most obvious discrimination in truthful and deceptive information.

    Keywords: cues, deception, lie, Indonesian

  • Éva Szabó :
    A nyelvi agresszió megjelenése a politikai vitaműsorokban31-43 [361.20 kB - PDF]EPA-00791-00017-0030

    Abstract: This paper aims to present strategies of verbal agression in different Hungarian political debate shows. In the first part of the paper I define the notions of aggression and verbal aggression, relaying on approaches from socialphychology and linguistics. I also present the features of the semi-institutional discourse type under study and the corpus of the research. In the second part of the paper I investigate the language use and the linguistic tools of discourse participants. Based to the data, I differentiate three types of strategies which give rise to verbal aggressiveness. The suggested strategies may reveal the speaker”s intentions and motivations behind verbal aggression in this particular type of discourse.

    Keywords: political debate show, semi-institutional discourse, verbal aggression, verbal aggression strategies

  • Esra Abdelzaher ,
    Ágoston Tóth :

    Abstract: This paper demonstrates how the parallel examination of distributional data and frame semantic information can expose word senses that are not documented in FrameNet. In our case study, we compare the distributional features of the word crime to its properties stored in the FrameNet database also considering dictionary data that we find in three online monolingual dictionaries. Our analysis indicates that crime has senses that are absent from FrameNet. The five senses that we identify can be separated on the basis of (a) frame hierarchies, (b) frame elements, (c) syntactic and semantic data extracted from corpora using lexicographical tools and (d) distributional similarity. Annotated examples are provided to demonstrate each sense.

    Keywords: crime, FrameNet, distributional semantics, lexicographic relevance, Sketch Engine

  • Sami Abdel-Karim Abdullah Haddad :
    Conversational Implicature in Jordanian Arabic Offers64-75en [560.41 kB - PDF]EPA-00791-00017-0050

    Abstract: This research paper aims at investigating Gricean theory of conversational implicature and its application to Jordanian Arabic employed in Facebook offers for travel and tourism as well as ‘Open Market’ real estate offers. It seeks to identify how conversational implicatures get conveyed. To achieve the objective of this paper, data were collected from Facebook and ‘Open Market’ website. The offers were analyzed in a qualitative-quantitative method, so the data were calculated-tabulated in order to find out if there were striking descriptive-statistical differences among flouting of the four maxims. An in-depth qualitative analysis found that there were a range of purposes for flouting all the four maxims of conversation. Meanwhile, all of the purposes were in line with a bid to persuade offerees in offers. The quantitative analysis was then applied and revealed that quality was the most frequently flouted maxim in Facebook offers while manner was the most frequently flouted one in ‘Open Market’ offers. The content of the offered thing was finally found to relate to a huge divergence in statistical analyses. Regardless, the researcher formulated a hypothesis that conversational implicatures in advertisements tend to be universal. Hopefully, this paper will contribute to the field of internet pragmatics in advertising discourse.

    Keywords: conversational implicature, maxims, flouted, Jordanian Arabic, Facebook offers, ‘Open Market’ offers.

  • Ahmad Khatatneh :
    Specificational Pseudoclefts in Standard Arabic76-94en [665.13 kB - PDF]EPA-00791-00017-0060

    Abstract: Arabic wh-clefts use a strategy that involves a focused XP in the initial position, followed by the pronoun hu ‘he’ or the past simple copula kaan ‘was’, and a relative clause introduced by a wh-phrase or the relative marker lla ‘that’. This schema was claimed by different Arab scholars to match English clefts. In this paper, I show that such an account is problematic and that this construction shows specificational pseudocleft properties, such as reversibility and connectivity. Furthermore, reversibility will be shown to be superficial and that the two structures highlighting wh<XP and XP<wh orders have two different underlying structures, i.e. two different types of specificational pseudoclefts. Besides, an analysis will also be provided for the pronoun which appears in copular sentences and pseudoclefts as a relator as defined in Den Dikken (2006).

    Keywords: Syntax, Clefts, Pseudoclefts, Arabic, Copular sentences

  • Imola-Ágnes Farkas :
    Atelic unaccusative verbs and cognate objects in Hungarian95-114en [411.28 kB - PDF]EPA-00791-00017-0070

    Abstract: In the present paper we take a close look at the syntactic and semantic restrictions imposed on atelic unaccusative verbs occurring with a cognate object-like nominal in Hungarian. The starting point for our discussion is the proposal in Farkas (2019), according to which in Hungarian there are no objects which are literally cognate with the intransitive verb they accompany; instead, there are three classes of so-called pseudo-objects which fulfil the function of the aspectual cognate object in this language. We show that atelic unaccusative verbs in Hungarian are compatible, first and foremost, with members of one particular class of pseudo-objects, namely the ones that express or highlight the degree of the change of the event expressed by the verb such as (egy) nagyot ‘(one) big.ACC’, (egy) hatalmasat ‘(one) huge.ACC’ and (egy) óriásit ‘(one) gigantic.ACC’. We also demonstrate that, as opposed to the claims made in the literature, these verbs are not completely unacceptable with the light pseudo-object egyet ‘one.ACC’.

    Keywords: atelic unaccusative verb, pseudo-object, cognate object, VP, Hungarian

  • Katinka Rózsa :
    Wortbildung mit nicht- - Präfix oder Kompositionsglied?115-124de [333.40 kB - PDF]EPA-00791-00017-0080

    Abstract: In this paper I discuss word-formation with nicht- in German. It is debated in the literature whether nicht- is to be analysed as a prefix or rather as a compound member in words like Nichtmitglied or nichtöffentlich. This article discusses the categorization of nicht- on the basis of criteria suggested in the literature for the identification of affixes and compound members in general. It is shown that the arguments for a compound-member analysis of nicht- (such as the fact that nicht also occurs as a free form in German) are unconvincing. Rather, it is proposed that nicht- is better categorized as a prefix.

    Keywords: word-formation, affix, compounding, derivation

  • Ádám Galac :

    Abstract: This study reports on the findings of a contrastive analysis of the changes in the semantic prototypes of basic perception verbs in the history of six European languages: English, German, French, Spanish, Italian, and Hungarian. All verbs found to have functioned as basic perception verbs during a period in one of the languages were included in the research, not only those that are basic perception verbs today. My primary aim was to find historical linguistic data on the cultural role and conceptualization of the five sensory modalities in - the broadly understood - Western society. The patterns that can be observed in the instances of semantic change point to the same domains that Sweetser (1990: 23-48) has found to be associated with vision, audition, gustation, and tactition. Concerning olfaction, its linguistic coding shows three characteristics: olfactory verbs tend to get semantically generalized; the conceptualization of an olfactory event is closer to the “passive frame”, as coined by Kövecses (2019); olfactory vocabulary has a strong tendency to acquire negative connotations. Olfaction’s culturally assigned role seems to delineate a subordinate, rather unconscious and uncontrollable sensory modality that is often linked with negative emotions.

    Keywords: semantic change, perception verbs, etymology, semantic prototype, diachrony

  • Krisztina Fehér :

    Abstract: This study investigates developing linguistic prestige of the standard/local varieties in bidialectal kindergarteners whose linguistic environment has a high level of interference between two varieties of different social prestige. To date, little is known about linguistic preferences of kindergarteners who are exposed to a wide range of speech forms on a continuum of the standard (high-status) variety and a local (low-status) dialect. Particularly the emergence of metalinguistic awareness of the prestige of the varieties in a highly interfering bidialectal environment is understudied. 77 Hungarian 5-7-year-olds participated in a VGT-MGT quantitative experiment along with a brief qualitative data collection. A significant preference for the high-status variety and an emerging metalinguistic awareness of the different prestige of two varieties have been found in bidialectal children as early as age 6.

    Keywords: bidialectal kindergarteners, local dialect, metalinguistic awareness, standard variety, status-based preference

  • Orsolya Katalin Szabó :

    Abstract: After the withdrawal of the United Kingdom, the European Union is more aware than ever that it necessitates an imminent reform. The present paper fits into the pending reconceptualisation of the European Union’s legal and institutional system. Halfway between a confederation and a federation, European legislature may have direct effects on its citizens, therefore, transparency is a central element of legitimate governance in the EU. However, while the European Union has long been struggling to respect transparency through its ambitious policy of multilingualism, the ever-growing number of official/national languages puts EU institutions under enormous pressure. Since it is impossible to respect integral multilingualism under all circumstances, European institutions started to adopt ad hoc strategies implicitly. Fearing the explosion of the EU’s linguistic ‘powder keg’ the language regime of the European Union has developed a series of contradictory aspects. Along with the critical review of the European Union’s language policy, this paper raises the possibility to adopt Euro-English, an ascending, independent variety of English peculiar to Brussels bureaucracy for institutional communication. It aims to provide impetus for a comprehensive reflection on a European language policy that is capable of reconciling transparency and efficiency.

    Keywords: transparency, efficiency, EU language policy; individual multilingualism; linguistic diversity; Euro-English

  • Péter Őri :
    Same Element, Different Processes187-208en [806.54 kB - PDF]EPA-00791-00017-0120

    Abstract: Hungarian and English exemplify two different laryngeal systems: the former is referred to as a true voicing language, in which voiced obstruents contrast with voiceless ones, whereas the latter can be categorized as an aspirating language, which has aspirated and unaspirated obstruents. Current analyses normally assume two laryngeal elements available for the phonological representation to create two-way contrasts: |L|, responsible for voicing, and |H|, associated with aspiration. In the present paper, I argue that one element, namely |H|, is enough to distinguish the two obstruent series in both language types. Furthermore, I propose that the typological divide be drawn along the different kinds of phonological processes targeting |H|. The result is a simpler analysis of languages with two-way laryngeal contrasts.

    Keywords: laryngeal features, laryngeal assimilation, true voicing vs. aspirating languages, Laryngeal Relativism, Element Theory

  • Enikő Tóth :

    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to collect and examine spontaneous data on Hungarian nominal demonstratives. Taking as a starting point Piwek et al.’s (2008) work on Dutch, conversations between two interlocutors were video recorded in a controlled-dialogue game setting. After a quantitative analysis of the distribution of pragmatic uses of Hungarian demonstratives, two hypotheses regarding the choice of exophoric proximal and distal demonstratives were tested, namely, it was explored whether relative distance from the speaker and mental accessibility influence demonstrative practice. The findings indicate that while relative proximity is a decisive factor, accessibility is not crucial. The paper also offers a detailed investigation of the various pragmatic uses of Hungarian demonstratives with the help of illustrative examples analysed in context.

    Keywords: nominal demonstrative, Hungarian, distance, accessibility, pointing gesture

  • Sergei Kuzeev :
    Language and Consciousness: Towards the Path of Synergy230-240en [497.51 kB - PDF]EPA-00791-00017-0140

    Abstract: While physicalist interpretations of human consciousness have been the major focus in the philosophy of mind and cognitive science during the last decades, many existing proposals expressly link phenomenal consciousness with human linguistic ability and build on the idea that we acquire cognitive access to consciousness through “higher-order” verbal thinking. Accepting this premise and the epistemological consequences of Jackson’s Knowledge Argument, this paper argues that the study of phenomenal knowledge as the one mediated by language might grow into a novel and promising research agenda for cognitive linguistics.

    Keywords: phenomenal concepts, language and consciousness, knowledge argument

  • Amani Mejri :

    Abstract: This study addresses English anaphor interpretation by Tunisian high school students. Along with seeking to obtain a preliminary view on this specific issue of second language acquisition, this pilot study equally aims at exploring possible similarities and differences in the interpretation of pronouns between Tunisian-Arabic native speakers and English speakers in previous child language acquisition studies. Notably, this study aims at examining whether Tunisian speakers are accurate in the interpretation of reflexives and whether they face any issues in pronoun interpretation. In a questionnaire elaborated in line with these motives, 24 Tunisian high school students interpreted some constructions including reflexive and non-reflexive pronouns. Their performance on the English pronominals, introduced within some constructions such as PNPs and PPs, showed some variation patterns when interpreting pronouns and reflexives as well. It was recorded that their pronoun interpretation in this pilot study was similar to L1 speakers, given that the Tunisian participants were accurate to some extent in their interpretation of reflexives and less accurate with pronouns. However, their pronoun interpretation, marked by its variation, could not be indicative of their grammatical competence as it is an introductory schema of the way they approach reflexives and non-reflexives. The pronominal difference between the two researched languages is underscored. Yet attributing the participants’ pronoun interpretation to this pronominal difference could not be maintained, as it is not confirmed through this pilot study.

    Keywords: English anaphor, Principle A, Principle B, computational complexity, Delay in Principle B Effect, second language acquisition, child language

  • Dobi Edit :

    Abstract: The output of the representation of semiotic textological meaning in the analysis of Attila József's poem Mama [Mother] - In the framework of my study, I illustrate via the analysis of Attila József's poem Mama with what information the complex signal model interpreted in the context of semiotic textology and the system of meaning planes contribute to the representation of the meaning of the text. The theoretical framework of meaning analysis is comprised by semiotic textology. In the representation of the meaning, the interpreter of the text (and, obviously, its creator) is present as a unique mental content or as a unique mental function. In the context of this conception, the basis of textuality is the intuition of the recipient of the text concerning whether or not it functions as a text for a currently perceived complex sign.

    Keywords: meaning analysis, semiotic textology, text as complex sign

  • Havasi Benigna :

    Abstract: The aim of the paper is to compare the political vocabulary used under two German totalitarian political systems: (1) the linguistic elements of the National Socialist regime of 1933-1945, and (2) the words used in the German Democratic Republic between 1949-1990. The paper confirms that structural identities can be discovered between the vocabulary of the Third Reich and the GDR vocabulary. This means that the language policy aspirations of the National Socialist dictatorship, and its tools and elements are the same as those used in the GDR: the current power created new, non-existent words, created new words by composing already existing words, or completely reinterpreted existing expressions. Nevertheless, a striking similarity between the two vocabularies is that both systems had their own frequented words most associated with the political system, and both promoted the frequent use of technical and official words. And these methods were permeated by an all-encompassing ideology that could answer all questions of life.

    Keywords: totalitarian language, National Socialism, political vocabulary, Entnazifizierung