Abstract: On the Conditions of Successful Meaning Representation – Irony Comprehension and Conceptual Schemas The present study aims to call attention to the close relation existing between the meaning representation of texts and the types of elements as well as entities deriving from the mental lexicon, involved in ordering conceptual schemas to the whole of textual representation during reception. This is related to the occurrence of a certain degree of discrepancy that occurs between the meaning of certain semantic categories, which have the force to drive the interpretive attitude of the receiver in the direction of ordering figurative, or possibly, an ironically loaded content, rather than a literal meaning to the text comprehended. Testing of irony comprehension by patients with Asperger’s syndrome may provide useful results for our considerations concerning this relation with a potentially high degree of success.
Keywords: mental lexicon, conceptual schemas, irony, Asperger’s syndrome
Abstract: In this paper, firstly (1) we define the general „construction” concept, and describe an abstract model which captures this concept. This model is built on the notion of algebraic lattice. Secondly, (2) we apply the model to verbal expressions like he takes their opinions into consideration or the team would get rid of its beloved mascot. Then (3) by combining verbal expressions we make the model suitable for representing verbal expressions of a whole corpus together instead that of just one clause. Finally, (4) we outline the algorithmic framework, by which the model can become capable of identifying the so called real verbal expressions like take something into consideration or get rid of something in a corpus-driven way.
Keywords: lattice, algebraic model, verbal expression, lexical acquisition, corpus driven
Abstract: The present paper aims to investigate the cognitive processes involved in interpretation of the allegorical poem Két vitorla from Conrad Ferdinand Meyer. The analysis presented is at the interface between two disciplines, namely, cognitive poetics and cognitive linguistics. The main finding from this study is that the interpretation of allegorical lyrical texts depends not only on compositionality, but also on literal schemas, especially on text schemas and world schemas.
Keywords: Allegory, cognitive linguistics, cognitive grammar, cognitive poetics
Abstract: In this paper two (not completely unrelated) factors are discussed which may contribute to the use of preposed adjectives (i.e. AN vs NA phrases) in Scottish Gaelic, namely the grammatical feature of subjectivity and the pragmatic feature of emphasis. A combined analysis of a corpus study and interviews with native speakers was applied in the research. Subjectivity occurs in the case of certain nouns related to time and modality (such as latha ʻday’ and rùn ʻintention’). Emphasis has been attested in the case of a number of nouns qualified by the preposed adjective deagh- ʻgood’ both in the corpus and the interviews. The study has also revealed that preposed adjectives are typically found in more compoundlike expressions, while plain adjectives tend to highlight quality.
Keywords: preposed adjectives, subjunctive, emphasis, compounds, Celtic
Abstract: Emerging scientific results have an influence on the concept of aphasias. The studies focusing on linguistic disorders are colourful, as many fields of science are represented, and although they use different methods, their results have thoroughly changed our knowledge of the nature of aphasias. Besides the linguistic approach, the cognitive neuroscientific approach also has a great impact on current aphasia research, whose most important result is that a paradigm shift has unfolded by the ability to test different theoretical models on-line. The results of such multidisciplinary research contribute to a better understanding of linguistic ability and aphasias, as well as to the development of rehabilitation programmes based on evidence (Csépe, 2016: 149).
Keywords: aphasia, paradigm shift, cognitive neuroscientific approach
Abstract: In the case of languages which make a two-way distinction between demonstrative terms the choice between spatial demonstratives has traditionally been assumed to depend on the referent’s physical proximity to the speaker. However, recently this egocentric and speaker-anchored view has been challenged, and the addressee’s role in demonstrative reference has been emphasized (Peeters and Özyürek 2016). This paper reports the results of a production study on the use of Hungarian demonstrative determiners. It is argued that though the traditional view cannot be rejected, it is not satisfactory in itself, i.e. besides relative distance from the speaker the establishment or lack of joint attention between speaker and hearer to the referent and the presence or absence of a pointing gesture are also decisive factors.
Keywords: demonstrative, distance, joint attention, pointing gesture
Abstract: In my paper, I set out to analyse and quantify the occurrence of ambiguity of English structures with no or minimal context. To this end, I use an online corpus. First, I define the concept of ambiguity, using two renown dictionaries; second, briefly describe each structure with examples from the corpus and other sources; third, gain some quantified data regarding their occurrence in the corpus; four, find out whether my objective and assumptions prove to be true on the basis of my data; finally, draw the conclusions, and try to see if there are any other fields to be researched related to the topic of my paper.
Keywords: ambiguity, corpus, structure, context
Abstract: As part of the ever increasing research on the special language and discourse of tourism, this study inquires into how the persuasive discourse function, an effective communicative means of attracting potential customers, occurs in the texts of a small-scale tourism corpus. The study focuses on the investigation of lexical and grammatical choices in the travel articles of a self-compiled corpus, to examine in what ways the selection and recurrence of certain lexical and syntactic patterns manifest and demonstrate the persuasive promotional function of this special discourse. Following a brief account of the theoretical framework, the paper presents the results of a corpus-driven analysis of the use of keywords, attributive clusters, intensifiers, and ego-targeting person pronouns, as markers of persuasion in the articles related to city tours. The results suggest that further corpus-based research is needed on the lexical and syntactic patterns of tourism genres and registers to reveal the peculiar discursive features of tourism texts.
Keywords: tourism discourse, persuasive function, self-compiled corpus
Abstract: The aim of my paper is to describe a particular group of multimedial text, namely the song. To investigate it, I examined the different definitions of the text and summarized the groups of the multimedial texts in the context of the semiotic textology. In the second half of the article I analyzed the verbal and the musical components of one song which is clearly demonstrates that the musical constituent is able to streghten the global cohesion when the verbal part has fragmented linear cohesion.
Keywords: music, text, multimedial text, semiotic textology, cohesion
Abstract: The fields of science which represent the cognitive attitude (Pléh 2007) and which study the different aspects of linguistic ability reciprocally influence and define each other. The multidisciplinary approach to linguistic ability is fruitful, as the synthesising of the results of different fields of science may refine our point of view on language. Therefore, this study focuses on such cognitive linguistic theories that can be proven by the results of current neuroscientific research on the functional neuroanatomical background of linguistic ability. This study surveys such a current approach the so-called Hub-and-Spoke Model (Rogers et al. 2004; Patterson, Nestor, Rogers 2007; Lambon Ralph et al 2010; Lambon Ralph 2014).
Keywords: conceptual representation, multidisciplinary approach, cognitive neuroscientific research
Abstract: In my thesis, the focus is on the school weekdays and the reality beyond everyday events in school. The base of my thesis, beyond presenting the literature, is a qualitative research made through a couple of months with the help of systematic, documented and objective observations as well as structured interviews. The venue of this investigation is a Hungarian orphanage giving home to more than a hundred children and youngsters. The interviews were recorded with those children living in this orphanage who were studying in primary school at the time. All in all, the personal and school experiences of 15 children make it possible to start my own investigation based on a detailed content analysis-
At the beginning of the research, the description of the phenomenon of school was considered as the main aim of the investigation which will be presented through the lens of the children protected by the government. One of the most interesting questions was how the positive or negative effects experienced in school are represented in their minds in this multiply traumatized life situation. How do they experience the entry to school? How do they process being in school as well as what does leaving school mean to them? Furthermore, how do they see the surrounding teachers’ behaviour and mentality? How can the school be an alternative and an opportunity to become successful as well as a positive paragon for children living in orphanages? Is it even possible? To respond to these questions and several other suggestions of researchers, the conceptual metaphor theory of Lakoff and Johnson (1980) helped. This research has thrown light on the metaphors underlying subconscious narratives in spontaneous speech; i.e., what shape school takes deep inside students’ minds.
Keywords: cognitive metaphor theory, qualitative research, child-welfare, school representation
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to investigate the realization of apologizing strategies in Hungarian, with the help of an experimental method called MDCT (Multiple-choice Discourse Completion Test). More specifically, the paper attempts to analyse the influence of two sociopragmatic factors – namely social power and gravity of the offense – on the apologizing strategies of Hungarian native speakers. The results show that social power as a socio-pragmatic factor plays an important role in the realization of Hungarian apologizing strategies, while gravity of the offense is not a determinant factor.
Keywords: speech act, apologizing, Hungarian
Abstract: The present study is an integral continuation of my previous article: the aim is to represent the analysis of the songs in a modified context of the semiotic textology. The article focuses on the relationship between text and music, namely on the simultaneous perception of the verbal and the musical component. In the summary I advert breafly to the tasks which should contribute to the complex analysis of the songs.
Keywords: text, music, multimedial text, perception, semiotic textology, aspects of the analysis
Abstract: As part of my research, I study the phonological changes modifying the sound structure of Hungarian common nouns and toponyms. In this paper, I focus on the issues related to the disappearance of stem-final vowels in Hungarian. In the first part, I provide an overview of published scholarly opinions and findings on this process of change and I also introduce the relevant terminological problems. This is followed by the presentation of my own research findings, comparing them with former approaches.
My research in this field is based on the corpus that I created from two types of source materials: toponyms of the Old Hungarian Era and modern lexemes from regional dialects.
Keywords: stem-final vowels, historical phonology, toponyms, historical linguistics
Abstract: Intuitively, negative existentials containing empty NPs represent the world as being a certain way. Moreover, utterances of such sentences seem to express thoughts that are informative and true. Standard static semantic theories cannot provide a straightforward account of these intuitive phenomena. In such frameworks, sentences with empty NPs are considered as being unable to express complete propositional contents. One consequence of this is that they cannot be assessed for truth and falsity. This paper investigates two alternative theories of negative existentials. A common feature of these theories is that they adopt a dynamic approach to meaning. I will argue that neither of these alternatives provides a reassuring solution to the apparent truth-conditional problem generated by the utterances of negative existentials.
Keywords: negative existentials, dynamic approaches to meaning, presupposition, modulation
Abstract: We aim to explore the nature of data analysis in the investigation of talk-in-interaction. On the basis of a case study on the phenomenon of repair, we argue that even in a traditionally corpus-based field like conversation analysis, the source of corpus data is of an inherently integrated nature. The actual research practice shows that the methodology of conversation analysis cannot be clearly delimited but has fuzzy boundaries. In order to be able to use occurrences found in corpora as data, corpus as data source should be complemented with further pieces of information from other data sources, for instance, the researcher’s intuition, the results of earlier investigation, the theoretical framework we work in, and inferences.
Keywords: conversation analysis, corpus-based research, repair, inconsistency, data, data sources, intuition
Abstract: This paper studies the Hungarian National Corpus in order to collect the variant forms of eight non-decomposable Hungarian idioms. The results show that the base forms of the selected expressions can be manipulated in various ways. In consistency with Langlotz’s (2006) investigation, the most frequent alterations were wordplays, lexicalized idiom variants and idiom blends; however, the isomorphically constrained constructional adaptation, inconspicuous literal-scene manipulation and topic indication were also attested in our data. Nonetheless, the number of these variations was quite low, so they do not provide sufficient evidence against the hypothesis that only decomposable idioms can be subject of them (Langlotz 2006).
Keywords: idioms, decomposability, variations
Abstract: This paper aims to analyze the role of non-literal meanings in the Metamorphoses Fairytale Therapy Method using pragmatic approach. In the first part of the paper the theories of Grice (1957; 1975/1989), Bach (2012) Sperber & Wilson (1986/1995), Giora (1997; 2008) and Gibbs (1994) are presented in brief. The paper emphasizes those details of mentioned theories which are connected to non-literal meanings. In the second part I present the Metamorphoses Fairytale Therapy Method and on the basis of the relevance theory I analyze linguistic examples which were said in therapeutic discourse. In this paper I would like to focus on the comprehension of creative metaphors in fairytales and point out the diagnostic role of using non-literal meanings in therapeutic discourse.
Keywords: non-literal meaning, Metamorphoses Fairytale Therapy Method, relevance theory, creative metaphor
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to investigate the meaning and use of the Scottish Gaelic intensifiers làn, sàr, sìor, and seachd. This study is based on a corpus study carried out on a subcorpus of the Corpas na Gàidhlig (The Corpus of Scottish Gaelic). All of these words show “basic” and intensifier meanings – the latter mostly with adjectives and in fixed expressions (mainly with abstract nouns), except for sìor, which intensifies verbs. Làn ʻfully, completely’ conveys an absolute degree, the basic meaning of sàr ʻextremely, exceptionally’ is related to esteem, arts and nobility, high quality. Sìor ʻconstantly, forever’ mainly intensifies the length of actions, seachd ʻbeyond’ refers to more than the absolute degree of a quality, and it often occurs in comparative contexts.
Keywords: intensifiers, compounds, Celtic
Abstract: In this paper we aim to provide an analysis of the Hungarian pseudo-object egyet ‘one.ACC’ and its adjectivized versions such as (egy) jót ‘(one) good.ACC’, jókat ‘good.PL.ACC’, (egy) nagyot ‘(one) big.ACC’, egy jó nagyot ‘one good big.ACC’, nagyokat ‘big.PL.ACC’, (egy) hatalmasat ‘(one) huge.ACC’ and hatalmasakat ‘huge.PL.ACC’, which have been shown to have a delimiting function similarly to verbal particles and result predicates (Piñón 2001; Csirmaz 2008; Farkas 2017b). We show that pseudo-objects also differ from particles and result predicates when delimiting events. Whereas the latter are responsible for a maximal-event interpretation (Kardos 2012, 2016), egyet and other similar elements give rise to non-maximal delimitation. The paper also explores the syntax of egyet-delimiters arguing that these elements are merged in the derived object position, in [Spec, AspP] within vP (MacDonald 2008; Travis 2010).
Keywords: pseudo-objects, telic, situation delimiters, AspP, Hungarian
Abstract: In order to account for the variability in the linearization of ditransitive constructions in English, semantic and syntactic as well as pragmatic motives have been proposed. Of recent, gradience grammar has been proposed (cf. Bresnan & Ford 2010), whereby categorical semantic constraints have been discounted and probabilistic tendencies advanced. While the current study subscribes to all those criteria, it intends to focus on two auxiliary properties that have so far not received enough attention as regards their role in the variability in the linearization of ditransitive constructions, namely diachronic factors and analogical leveling. This complementary account will thus fill up the lacuna posed by the fact that despite the role of the multifactorial predictors advanced so far, these do not fully answer, for example, the question as to why some speakers or speech communities accept, while others reject, constructions in which these very predictors are at work.
Keywords: variability, ditransitive verbs, double object construction, prepositional phrase construction, diachronic factors, analogical levelling
Abstract: This paper reports the results of a series of experiments into recognizing semantic frames and frame elements using neural networks and measuring the added benefit of embedding large-scale co-occurrence information about words during the process. Frame recognition is carried out using Elman-type recurrent neural networks to give the system short-term memory of previous words within the sentence. Long-term memory is implemented in the system of weighted links between neurons. We test 9 word-representation methods including predict- and count-type distributional representations. We show that distributional word representations, which provide the frame recognizer with access to unlabelled co-occurrence information about every word, perform noticeably better than non-distributional techniques. Frame recognition F-score increased from 0.76 to 0.89, and frame element recognition – a considerably more difficult task – also benefited from the added information: we see an F-score increase from 0.46 to 0.53. We also show that this task is less sensitive to the particularities of collecting word distribution information than the known benchmark experiments.
Keywords: FrameNet, semantic role labelling, distributional semantics, word embeddings, deep learning
Abstract: This paper aims to present that effective legal interrogation methods need input from linguistics, psychology, jurisprudence and criminalistics also. I investigate the types of false memories caused by verbal information potentially influencing the witness’ testimony in the courtroom. I also examine the question strategies used by judges in trying to control whether the witness recalls a true experience or only a false memory. I compare two witness’ testimonies at the police station and in the courtroom in a Hungarian criminal case.
Keywords: false memories, witness testimony,interrogation methods
Abstract: Examining the vocabulary according to various criteria is an extremely complex task. It is made even more complex, if we intend to cover the issue of neologisms only, because it is not always possible to know exactly when a new word was coined. Using a really detailed online source of neologisms, Word Spy, which also includes the dates of the earliest use, I attempt to count the words coined between 2014 and 2018 and registered on Word Spy. My paper - which examines only that source of new words, and which is therefore a case study - also covers these words’ word-formation patterns, the frequency of the parts of speech, and the conceptual contents. The ratio of the parts of speech offers us some insight into English native speakers’ habits in terms of word formation.
Keywords: neologism, word formation, parts of speech, frequency