Abstract: In this study I examine appositional constructions, which in Hungarian are equivalent to identifying appositions.1 First I present the characteristic properties of the construction investigated, with reference to all the features mentioned in the literature. In my research I’m also trying to discover whether the types distinguished in the international literature can be justifiably related to Hungarian identifying appositions. I pay special attention to the examination of conjunctions appearing in the construction. My research also extends to the issue of which unit of the identifying apposition appearing either in subject or object position will induce agreement on the predicate. The question is important, since the answer may clarify whether identifying appositions should be analysed as subordinate or coordinate structures. I argue that each type of identifying appositions needs to be matched with different construction-types.
Keywords: close apposition, loose apposition, identification, attribution, inclusion, agreement, supplementation Merge
Abstract: The aim of this article is to determine the basic structure of entities denoted by the term “argument”. The investigation does not, however, include all the designata of the term “argument”, but is limited to those situations where this word is used in legal discourse, i.e. in discussions carried out within legal transactions. The word “argument” used in these circumstances is associated with two individual meanings. The one is reflected in the wording “a specific complex of utterances”, whereas the other is denoted by the expression “an inference regarding the law”. The following considerations are an attempt to characterise the basic structure of an argument conceived as a complex of utterances within legal discourse. These are also geared towards disclosing main elements of an argument treated as a rule governing mental activities in legal discussions. As a result, this distinction will hopefully serve as an anchor for further considerations aiming to expound and focus on the two distinct meanings of the argumentative expressions under analysis.
Keywords: legal discourse, structure of legal argument, argument, inference regarding the law.
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to investigate the speech act of apologizing in an intercultural Hungarian-Japanese framework, more specifically, it compares the apologizing strategies used by Hungarian native speakers and Japanese learners of Hungarian as a second language. The study claims that a noticeable negative pragmatic transfer influences second language learners’ linguistic behaviour. To test this hypothesis, a Multiple-choice Discourse Completion Test has been carried out. The paper proves that because of the presence of negative pragmatic transfer, the linguistic behaviour of second language users is affected by their native language. Additionally, the study reveals the differences between the socio-cultural backgrounds of the two speaking communities.
Keywords: speech act, apologizing, Japanese, Hungarian as a second language
Abstract: The examination of the relationship between different types of text is one of the most current research topics in the Germanic linguistic literature, to which more and more studies draw the attention (see Adamzik 2000, Klein 1991, 2000). However, empirical research is still rarely carried out. My thesis deals with the problems of research models suitable for analyzing the relationships between different text types, based on suggestions in the literature (see Klein 2000, Janich 2011). Although these need to be modified and supplemented in view of text types selected for analysis, they are a good starting point for further research.
Keywords: intertextuality, text types, relationships between text types, advertising
Abstract: On the basis of general assumptions about social positioning within the legal and political spheres in a democratic society this article outlines the issue of public participation in the context of authorisation procedures of the deliberate release of genetically modified organisms in Hungary. Meanwhile, based on a sequential analysis, it focuses on the dimension of sequential interactivity, which is perhaps the more obvious form of the dynamic of social positioning.
Keywords: social positioning, dynamic, sequentiality, interactivity
Abstract: This case study is a qualitative analysis of a video-recorded reasoning situation in which a pair of nine year old children argues for tools that should be taken to a deserted island. The students’ answers to a sociometric questionnaire are taken into account to establish background data on the children’s social positions in their clas and into their relationship. This information was used to interpret the multimodal data. A creative problem-solving task was the context of the reasoning situation, where the children were asked to choose 7 objects from 17 to be taken to a deserted island. Although there are many studies on children’s reasoning, it’s bodily and socially distributed nature has not been discovered yet. To provide new information about the topic, I look at the uses of gestures, movements and objects with regard to the social relationship between the participants in the interaction. I have choosen nine years old children to the study, since, on the one hand, abstract thinking and reasoning skills significantly develop around this year and on the other hand, only few studies focus on this age. The result of the analysis shows, that children applied different gestural strategies in reasoning, especially to create and maintain hierarchic relations which has significant effect on the outcome of their reasoning. The aim of the study is to discover how embodied resources are take part in the to co-construction of social positions and how they contribute in reasoning and effect the children’s decisions.
Keywords: multimodal interaction analysis, reasoning, sociometry
Abstract: Turkic languages have a characteristic verbal inflexion system which includes a small number of synthetic finite verb forms and an extensive set of analytic forms. The synthetic forms are the past simple and the optative/ volitional forms in the Old Turkic and the subsequently developed conditional form respectively. The lack of a synthetic present tense is also a characteristic feature. Only the copula derived from personal pronouns expresses the present tense, and functions as an auxiliary for verbs to form large number of analytic forms including the present tense. This copula subsequently took the form of nonverbal personal suffixes. In Chuvash these suffixes lose the function of a copula and serve as verbal personal agreement. Also the primer nonfinite verb forms they follow lose their original functions and can be found only in these finite forms. It makes the Chuvash system highly different from that of Common Turkic, with a large number of secondarily developed synthetic forms. It may be explained by a Permic influence in one or more dialects of Volga Bulgar language according to the large number of synthetic verb forms in Permic languages and the known Permic influence in the Chuvash optative/ volitional paradigm.
Keywords: Volga Bulgar, Chuvash, Udmurt, Permic, verbal morphology, copula, areal linguistics
Abstract: Participant reference in Arabic, a language with a sophisticated pronominal system, is dependent on several factors. Most of the previous research considered rule-based analyses of text and ignored other important factors such as pragmatic, sociolinguistic, and native speaker’s nonlinguistic knowledge. In this study of Qur’anic Arabic, two theoretical frameworks were taken into account: primarily Givόn’s measurements of topic continuity and, secondarily, Binding Theory. The study shows that the language is accessible for native speakers of Arabic. However, if translated into another language, the alternations of the use of full noun phrases (NP) and pronouns and dropped pronouns (pro) seem necessary. A more comprehensive text analysis approach might be called for, so that no prejudice judgements about any language are made.
Keywords: Participant Reference, topic continuity, Arabic
Abstract: Research into vocabulary learning strategies is burdened with fierce methodological controversies. This paper tries to show that one possible factor which might have lead to these discrepancies and the obstruction of research lies the circumstance that earlier approaches used statistical tools in a methodologically not satisfactory way. With the help of a case study, it is shown that the more careful choice and application of statistical tools may lead to the constructive retrospective re-evaluation of earlier approaches and provide new and reliable results.
Keywords: vocabulary learning strategies, partial least squares (PLS) path modeling, SmartPLS, cluster analysis
Abstract: This paper studies names for the cardinal directions in Mordvin, the largest Finno-Ugric language in Russia spoken in the Volga Area, on the basis of vocabulary from the earlier and recent dictionaries. The discussion is introduced by a brief historical overview of research in the topic of cardinal directions and a description of the cognitive linguistic framework for these names. The Mordvin language has got two main dialects that are the Erzya (E) and the Moksha (M) (some even say that these are separate languages). Examples in the paper are given from both of these dialects. Cardinal directions in Mordvin are compound words (with the exception of Russian loans). The first constituent usually refers to some kind of meteorological condition (cold/warm), the movement of the Sun (sunrise/sunset) or a particular time during the day (midday/midnight). There are only three among the second constituents the repetition of which is systematic – all three have the meaning “side”. – Anikó Nikolett Tóth created a more detailed classification for the Baltic-Finnish names for cardinal directions than the earlier systems, with nine semantic groups in it. It is somewhat surprising that Mordvin cardinal directions can only be classified into three groups. This may be partly explicable by the geographical conditions: there are no seas or mountains in Mordovia, they do not live “on the top of the world” and there are no extreme anomalies observable in the movement of the Sun. The three semantic groups are the following: Movement of the Sun: sunrise/sunset, parts of the day: midnight, night/noon, meteorological conditions: cold/warm. On the basis of the above, most of the Mordvin names for cardinal points can be described with the following structure: warm/cold + side; night, midnight/noon + side, sunrise/sunset + side.
Keywords: cardinal points, spatial orientation, Mordvin language
Abstract: The historiography of generative linguistics is one the most fiercely debated topics in linguistics. The present paper continues the author’s previous studies whose aim is to clarify the methods, hypotheses and concepts that are capable of grasping basic issues of the history of generative linguistics. Having critically analysed 19 approaches to the historiography of generative linguistics in his previous work, in this paper the author outlines his own model. Relying on Kertész and Rákosi (2012), his central claim is that the history of generative linguistics can be reconstructed as a process of plausible argumentation that is based on the cyclic, prismatic and retrospective re-evaluation of information. This claim is illustrated by a series of examples pertaining to the relationship between neo-Bloomfieldian linguistics and Chomsky’s early work.
Keywords: generative linguistics, history of linguistics, historiography, plausibe argumentation, plausible inference
Abstract: In this study, blogs and social media communication platform were examined. A comparison was made via a corpus-based analysis, which contains 20 blogs and their associated social networking site. The entire corpus contains 379 blog posts and 1,014 Facebook entries. During the analysis I considered the number and quality of entries, the rate of the phenomena of self-promotion in the links and the number of contact details. The feedback received from readers and the answers by the bloggers were also reflected on. The results suggest that some of the blog features, such as feedback from the readers, have taken over the social networking sites. It also became clear that the two platforms can be used in other types of communication, and the bloggers knowingly publish these contents on other platforms.
Keywords: internet linguistics, blogs, text linguistics, corpus-based analysis, social network and linguistics
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to present the use of first names in the non-standard registers of French through the example of the first name Charles and its two diminutives. After examining their morpholocical forms and their syntactical functioning, I focus on the semanctical specificities that differenciate them from proper nouns in general, the most important one being that their interpretation is based on connotations in the majority of cases. In the second part of the paper I describe idioms with Charles, Charlot and Charlie in details.
Keywords: French non-standard registers, first name, grammar of proper nouns, idioms
Abstract: The paper outlines problems one faces when studying loanwords from Romani (called Romisms). It provides a brief overview of the history of their incorporation. The main objective of the paper is to define fundamental common nodal points (or elementary differences) in penetrating of loanwords from Romani into non-standard varieties of several European languages. It especially focuses on European Spanish and Hungarian (in a lesser extent, there are also examples from Czech and Romanian). It is based on my field research conducted in Spain and in Hungary.
Keywords: language contact, loanwords, Romani, Hungarian, Spanish, Czech, Romanian, sociolinguistics, colloquial language, slang, argot
Abstract: Hungarian complex sentences with subordinate clauses commonly include a pronoun which is associated with the embedded clause. The nature of this pronoun is subject to debate in the literature: it may be analyzed as an expletive or as a contentful pronoun. This paper argues for the second approach, based on theoretical, empirical and cross-linguistic considerations.
Keywords: Hungarian, subordinate clause, pronoun, expletive