Abstract: The article deals with some important issues of terminology regarding the names of certain basic concepts (such as langue or dialecte) in dialectology, as used in linguistic works written in French – the relationship between these concepts not always being clear. Further problems may arise due to the fact that it is not evident what certain French terms (e.g. patois) stand for – as their meanings are not clearly determined and their usage can differ from linguist to linguist. Among other factors, these problems make it difficult to find out the relationship between the Romance idioms spoken in France. The present paper tries to establish a consistent system of the problematic terms in question pointing out that the most important thing is not the term itself used for a certain idiom, but the recognition of the exact position of a certain idiom in an imaginary dialectological hierarchy of closely related idioms
Keywords: dialectology, terminology, French, Occitan, langue d’oïl, langue d’oc
Abstract: The paper investigates innovative pragmatic codes in Ugandan English within the conceptual framework of Relevance Theory (cf. Sperber & Wilson 1986, Wilson & Sperber 2004). Wilson & Sperber (2004) state that an utterance is optimally relevant if it is worth the hearer’s processing effort, and if it is compatible with the speaker’s linguistic abilities and preferences. The reasoning behind these tenets of Relevance Theory can be used to account for the pervasive use of many expressions peculiar to Ugandan English. For example, in Ugandan English safe house means illegal place of detention; one dirtens a place (vs. dirties a place), etc. The innovative use of such expressions can be said to be triggered, among others, by the need to achieve optimal relevance, because the expressions are not only compatible with the abilities of Ugandan English speakers, but also their preference to choose them so as to satisfy the addressees’ expectations of relevance. Furthermore, Ugandan English exhibits many calques, including the discourse connective as (e.g. As you’re brave, which can mean I’m surprised that you’re brave!). Ugandan English as directs the addressee to the recognition that the relevance of the utterance resides more in the speaker’s attitude description than in the a
Keywords: Ugandan English, pragmatics, modified expressions, cognitive effects, calques, discourse markers, relevance
Abstract: Hypertextuality nowadays is an integral part of online text construction; however, there are many hypertexts in which cohesion and coherence are neglected by the hypertext constructor. The aim of this paper is to focus on lexical cohesion in hyperarticles on the hypertextual level of text construction. The collection of hyperarticles for analysis is constructed by Alexandra Le Tellier and published in the “Opinion Pages” column of the Los Angeles Times. The main reason for analyzing the hyperarticles of Le Tellier was that she appears to be a competent hypertext constructor since most of her hyperarticles enhance salient lexical cohesion. The methodology of the analysis is based on Jukka Tyrkkö’s model of hyperlinking strategies introduced to describe hyperfiction, however, they are altered and refined to be more appropriate for the description of hyperarticles. The result of the analysis seems to demonstrate that although hyperarticles are complete texts, as opposed to hyperfiction, they can be constructed – by a competent text constructor – to support salient lexical cohesion in the hypertextual dimension of textness.
Keywords: hypertext, saliency, lexical cohesion, hypertext construction
Abstract: This article focuses on phonetic and phonotactic changes in the Finnish first names. The most Finnish first names were a Fennicized form of the Christian or Swedish first names. The part of these Fennicized first names were used in informal situations. These became formal during the 19th century when the Finnish forms were added to the Finnish almanac. My aim is to present how the Fennicized forms evolved from the basic first names and what kind of phonetic and phonotactic changes happened.
Keywords: onomastics, names, Finnish first names, phonotactics, phonetics
Absztrakt: Jelen tanulmány a nyelvtörténeti adatokról metodológiai szempontból gondolkodva, de a nyelvtörténeti kutatás gyakorlatából vett példákra alapozva azt tárgyalja, hogyan értelmezhető a ’nyelvtörténeti adat’ fogalma, mire épülnek a diakrón kutatás hipotézisei, valamint a történeti dokumentumokban fellelt előfordulások hogyan illeszkednek a kutatás folyamatába. A nyelvészeti elméletalkotás Kertész & Rákosi (2012) által kidolgozott modelljére, az ún. p-modellre építve az írás a nyelvtörténeti adat újszerű értelmezését mutatja be, mely túllép a ’történeti adat’ kifejezés hagyományos, egy vizsgált nyelvi elem/jelenség történeti dokumentumokban fellelt előfordulásaira vonatkoztatott használatán. A tanulmány konklúziója, hogy a nyelvtörténeti korpuszadat integrált adatforrásból származó plauzibilis kijelentésként értelmezhető. A történeti korpuszadat ilyen felfogásával megragadhatóvá válnak a történeti adat felhasználásával kapcsolatos bizonytalanságok, valamint a történeti adat forrásának integrált természete.
Kulcsszavak: történeti adat, korpuszadat, adatforrások integrációja.
Színes ecsetvonások a nyelvészeti palettán - Különszám Dr. Hollósy Béla 65. születésnapja alkalmából
Abstract: The aim of the present study is to provide a general overview of multimodal corpora along with their annotation tools and schemes. In the first section an introduction is given to justify the necessity of multimodal approach not only in linguistics and communication studies but also in dialog modeling. Following the justification and the definition of multimodal corpora, three relatively well-known corpora are presented and compared. The considerable differences in their platforms and schemes highlight the necessity of standardization in order to enhance the usability and interoperability of their resulting datasets. Finally, the limitations of multimodal corpus studies are briefly listed.
Keywords: multimodality, corpus linguistics, multimodal corpora, corpus annotation
Abstract: Major, standard grammars of English give an account and interpret interrogatively used possessive have as a unique specialty of genres and text types of British English. Reviewing descriptions offered by some of these grammars and presenting empirically based evidence on acceptability of usage and function, the present paper offers results revealing the occurrence of inverted possessive have in other regional varieties, specifically in American English. It is suggested that have, retaining its possessive lexical meaning behaves as a semi-auxiliary in such constructions.
Keywords: possessive, inversion, do-support, corpus-based, semi-auxiliary, notionally and morpho-syntactically based categorization
Abstract: Two types of sources of linguistic representation can be separated and delineated in translation: those covering socio-cultural factors and those referring to linguistic potential. During translation of linguistically based games the task of the translator is to “dance hog-tied, relying on the possibility of the most impossible” (using the words of Kosztolányi), aiming to create stylistic effect using the same linguistic games similar to those found in the source text. Linguistic potential, variability of the linguistic code in most cases offer support to the implementation of this aim. In the present study, examples referring to the linguistic expression of the postmodern are provided in a contrastive framework of Hungarian and Russian.
Keywords: stylistics of translation, linguistically based game, stylistic potential, deictic focus, cognitive frame
Abstract: The paper addresses the issue of the extent to which cultural similarity is reflected in English and Hungarian conventional metaphors related to the source domain HORSE. Bilingual dictionary data seem to show a rather lower degree of equivalence in imagery than expected between English and Hungarian figurative expressions. Hungarian corpus data support the lexicographic evidence. Idiomatic expressions originate in everyday human experience, especially past rather than current, but knowledge of previous discourse, intertextuality and other aspects of culture are also relevant.
Keywords: phraseology, idioms, metaphor, culture
Abstract: The appropriate use of pragmatic markers – non-propositional well, you know, of course, etc. – is necessary for successful business communication (which is, for the most part, cross-cultural communication), however, pragmatic markers take a back seat in TEFL, TESL, and most notably, in TESP contexts. In our paper we will, first of all, discuss the major issues related to the concept of communicative competence as well as the role of PMs in shaping EFL and ESL speakers’ communicative competence. Next, some remarks will be made about the possible sources of the difficulties that may hinder the acquisition and/or learning of PMs, finally, the results of a case study will be presented, which aimed at mapping the functional spectrum of PMs as they are used in selected General Business English textbooks.
Keywords: communicative competence, pragmatic markers, General Business English, the role of input
Abstract: Categorization is the most basic cognitive process. It is the ordering of phenomena according to similarity with the purpose of guiding our interaction with the environment. Categories are formed in accordance with a functional and adaptive structuring of reality. At the culture level categories come to be formed by becoming coded in language. The process of cultural category formation is functional in nature since it is based on a speech community’s adaptation to its environment. Semantic change reveals a great deal about this process as it shows how reality can be construed in alternate ways to facilitate this adaptation due to the fact that the semantic structure of a language is the product of conceptualization processes.
Categorization at the basic level involves abstraction relying mainly on perceptual attributes, gestalt structures and common motor movements, thus it is to be expected that such categories exhibit a significant degree of universality. In spite of this, their manifestations in language – basic level terms – are also affected by the fact that language is a culturally influenced cognitive model of reality. It can be observed even at this level that language will be shaped in such a way that it will best facilitate communication and cognition in and of the physical, social, and cultural conditions under which it is used.
Keywords: categorization, cognition, basic level categories, basic level terms, semantic change, conceptualization, prototype
Abstract: The term infixation in English linguistics has been applied indistinctly to refer to various types of word internal modifications. However, a closer examination, especially from a historical linguistic viewpoint, suggests that several such internal modifications should not be treated as processes that involve infixes or even ‘infix-like’ elements. At the same time, the only true infix in English, the nasal present infix preserved from its Indo- European ancestor, gets hardly any attention in discussions of English morphology because this ancient infix is no longer productive. This paper offers some critical remarks on the current use of the notion of infix(ation) in English morphology, emphasizing the need for a more circumspect use of this term. Furthermore, it provides a brief insight into the historical background of the fossilized nasal infix in Modern English with an eye to reinstate its theoretical role in discussions of affixation.
Keywords: infixation, connective vowels, expletive derivation, ablaut, umlaut, Indo-European nasal present infix
Abstract: This paper presents the results of a new type of learner corpus analysis: one that is based on students’ own choices. The study was part of an international questionnaire survey conducted in 2012, which aimed to collect valid data about attitudes toward and views of higher education of Hungarian and European students of English as a foreign language (EFL). After discussing the rationale for a new type of learner corpus, which in this case is the author’s International Pride Corpus (IPC), the paper summarizes writing pedagogy studies dealing with notions of autonomy and originality, two values that have a central role in the current approach. The IPC is then submitted to thematic and lexical analyses, aiming to reveal differences between the BA and the MA subcorpora. Although the results appear inconclusive, the study is seen as potentially relevant for future corpus-building efforts as well as for the syllabus development of writing skills courses.
Keywords: writing pedagogy, corpus linguistics, vocabulary profile
Abstract: Due to the dynamic nature of dialogues, spoken utterances are often characterized by some degree of fragmentation. This fragmentation is directly reflected by the incompleteness of the syntactic structure of such utterances that represent a considerable challenge for automatic parsing. At the same time, syntactic incompleteness is also a reflection of some cognitive processes underlying the fragmentation of such an interaction. This fragmentation is often accompanied by a set of nonverbal gestures offering thereby the chance to attempt to find certain cues to these cognitive processes by studying the complex of aligning verbal and nonverbal elements. The present paper addresses the issue of the interaction of multimodal markers of conversation with the syntax of spoken utterances to find if certain communicative functions may be cues to the incompleteness of spoken syntax.
Keywords: syntax, spoken utterances, multimodality, communicative functions
Abstract: This paper provides an overview of some highly influential aspectual analyses of verbal predicates from the past few decades. First, it discusses Manfred Krifka’s mereological approach in some detail. Then, it describes the central assumptions of the more recent scalar approach and some aspectual and argument realization consequences of the scalar – non-scalar contrast in the domain of dynamic verbs. Finally, it offers a brief discussion of why the two approaches should be integrated in future investigations of aspectual phenomena.
Keywords: aspectual classes, mereologies, scales
Abstract: The aim of the paper is to scrutinize the concept of disagreement through highlighting some of the major terminological and definitional issues pertaining to it. With the help of empirical research, it addresses the common and distinct features of the various terms used for disagreement in linguistics. The paper also offers a critical review of the definitions of disagreement and based on the research results and the issues discussed, it proposes a new definition, which seems to be more capable of capturing the complex nature of disagreement than previous ones.
Keywords: disagreement, argument, terminology, speech act
Abstract: The paper is a quest for cognitive and affective material in conceptualization in order to elaborate on the coordinating mechanisms between form (linguistic structure) and meaning (conceptual structure and semantic structure) residing in the Mental Lexicon. The Mental Lexicon is seen as an active and dynamic, highly complex network of both neural and mental processes coordinated by conceptualization and manifested in language used in social verbal interaction. It is also taken to assume a central role in conceptualization which in turn is responsible for processing mental contents (mental representations, image schemas, mental models, memories, beliefs, intentions, plans, desires, mental projections, images, etc.), which have both cognitive and affective components. The analysis of linguistic examples shows that there is a wide range of parameters influencing the interpretation of linguistic structure and natural language use starting from formal semantics to inferential pragmatics, including quantification, modalities, intensional contexts, epistemic contexts, intentions, propositional attitudes, deictic relations, presuppositions and implicatures.
Keywords: natural language processing, form and meaning, cognitive and affective mental contents, Mental Lexicon
Abstract: The paper discusses and extends the notions of internal and external causation, mainly on the basis of Levin and Hovav (1995). New subclasses are added to the group of internally caused verbs, with a detailed semantic analysis of the semantic properties of the arguments that such verbs (e.g. verbs expressing the emission of sound or light) can take. The paper also discusses the agentive – causative – factitive alternation on the basis of Hungarian, where the factitive pattern is expressed in a fully regular way by morphological means.
Keywords: agentivity, internal and external causation, factitive, transitivity, Hungarian
Abstract: This paper deals with a very special Hungarian predicate type exhibiting a complexity of marked properties. After a summary and demonstration of the relevant features, I briefly outline the most important (and, often, radically different) types of analyses. Then I offer a detailed, comparative and critical discussion of four recent accounts, arguing for treating the predicate as a participle (rather than a finite verb form) and for handling its specific traits in the lexicon in the framework of Lexical-Functional Grammar.
Keywords: attributive participle, agreement, Hungarian, Lexical-Functional Grammar
Abstract: The paper discusses the possible sources of the meaning of want in And of course you want to change the title…. Semantically a modal but syntactically a main verb, want displays diverse and sometimes even contradictory relationships with its subject and subordinate predicate. The meaning in question is analyzed in this paper as the conceptual integration (blend) of a deontic and of a bouletic meaning, with possible contributions, semantic or formal, from other input spaces as well.
Keywords: auxiliary, blend (conceptual integration), bouletic, conceptual and grammatical structure, deontic, force dynamics, intentionality, modal, sense development
Abstract: The paper reports the results of a corpus study of the two Hungarian complex reflexive elements önmaga ‘himself’ and jómaga ‘himself’. As even the primary corpus data testify, the two reflexives diverge in their grammar in important ways. The paper argues that these data provide considerable support for an analysis in which jómaga ‘himself’ is treated as a special, discourse sensitive logophoric element.
Keywords: anaphor, complex reflexive, corpus study, Hungarian, logophor, reflexivity
Abstract: This panchronic sketch of some aspects of the syntax and semantics of the Hungarian verb(s) eszik/megeszik/ megesz “eat” partially complements my earlier paper on the cognate Ob-Ugric (Mansi and Khanty) verbs with the same basic meaning (Sherwood 1994-1995). Indeed, an important major goal of the paper is to supply much-needed additional support for the existence of a historic Ugric node in the Uralic (Finno-Ugric) family tree from the (hitherto underrepresented) semantic domain. An additional goal is to suggest how, and why, the very restricted realizations at the morphological and syntactic level of the verb megesz, in particular, iconically mirror its highly restricted semantics, which has nevertheless had a new lease of life recently. An integral part of the paper is a proposal concerning how the meaning “have sexual intercourse” may well have been represented in Hungarian prior to its adoption of the euphemistic Turkic loan basz(ik).
Keywords: panchronic, iconicity, “eat”, “sexual intercourse”, megesz, basz(ik), -ik conjugation, Ugric, Ob-Ugric (Mansi, Khanty)
Abstract: The paper reports on the results of two word similarity experiments. The first experiment is a subjective human test: similarity values for 31 pairs of Hungarian words have been collected from 28 subjects. The test method comes from Rubenstein & Goodenough (1965) and it reflects the intuition that word similarity is a continuum from clear cases of synonymy to the complete lack of apparent similarity. The Hungarian results correlate very well with the data collected by Rubenstein and Goodenough (Spearman r=0,959, p<0,01) and also with the English replica experiments (Miller & Charles 1991 and Resnik 1995). In the second experiment presented here, a computer program collected similarity data for the same words, based on the context in which they typically occur. The correlation between the subjective and the corpus-based data series is r=0,591 (p<0,01).
Keywords: word similarity, distributional semantics, vector spaces, computational linguistics
Abstract: The paper compares the use of deictic demonstratives in English and in Hungarian. English data are based on a quantitative study of proximal and distal demonstratives in English by Luz and Van der Sluis (2011), data on Hungarian come from an empirical study. Taking as a starting point Piwek et al.’s work on Dutch (2008), I designed an experiment (a controlled dialogue game), where participants worked with Lego blocks of the DUPLO series. Using statistical methods to analyse the empirical data, cognitive factors influencing the choice of demonstratives are tested.
Keywords: deixis, proximal and distal demonstratives, accessibility
Abstract: The present paper introduces the online spelling advisor portal helyesírás.mta.hu. It describes its principles of operation, the set of language resources it utilizes, illustrates the algorithms it employs and suggests lines of future enhancements.
Keywords: spelling advisor, spelling rules, language use, language technology, corpus linguistics, norms of language use
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to investigate the distribution of two resultative expressions, the verbal particle and the nominal resultative, in Hungarian. The pertinent literature diverges on the issue of whether the particle and the nominal resultative can co-occur in the same clause. Some do not accept such data and they may predict it to be ungrammatical, whereas others find these constructions grammatical, at least under certain circumstances. This paper reports the results of a corpus-based investigation of this issue. I show that resultative particles and nominal resultatives can co-occur in the same clause, and I outline an analysis which can capture the emerging properties of this construction.
Keywords: resultative expression, verbal particle, nominal resultative, Hungarian, appositive
Abstract: The present paper describes four theoretical frameworks in human syntactic parsing research that represent mi-lestones in the evolution of comprehension studies. The aim of this concise overview is to highlight certain ten-dencies of change that define the future of comprehension and parsing research; and also, to report about novel directions that may take over the place of the earlier dominant models.
Keywords: sentence comprehension, parsing, heuristic strategies, Garden-Path Theory, Constraint-Satisfaction Models, shallow processing, depth of processing, Good-Enough Approach
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to provide an account on a novel and yet little-known model of psycholinguistic parsing and sentence comprehension. After a brief overview of earlier dominant approaches to grammatical processing, Ferreira’s theory about “good enough” (or shallow) representations in language comprehension is discussed in detail with an indication of future directions attainable through the application of this approach to comprehension studies. The topic that is discussed here is of special interest for Hungarian psycholinguistic and parsing studies, since this new model may be better applicable to our language than any theories hitherto proposed.
Keywords: parsing, syntactic processing, sentence comprehension studies, good enough approach, heuristic strategies, NVN strategy, shallow processing, non-canonical thematic role structure
Abstract: There is a widespread consensus among semanticists that borderline cases of vague predicates can be suitably characterized by applying a definiteness operator. It is not hard to realize, however, that such operators give rise to semantic and logical difficulties, when introduced into the object language.
The line of thought presented in this paper differs significantly from the traditional approach in two ways. First, it offers a new definition for the phenomenon of borderlineness. Second, it points out that the difficulties generated by the definiteness operator could not possibly be solved without recourse to the problem of linguistic data.
Keywords: indeterminate extension, definiteness operator, asymmetric definition, problem of data
Abstract: The local adverb „ott” repeats the adverbial phrase of place in several Hungarian sentences. This redundant „ott” seems to perform the function of verbal prefixes. The process of grammaticalization (local adverb -> verbal prefix) is influenced by the following factors: the topic-focus articulation of a sentence, the grammaticalization of other elements containing back vowels, the emphasis on the progressive aspect and the type of text.
Keywords: local adverb, verbal prefix, grammaticalization, progressiv aspect, texttype