This study aims at comparing the average pitch height and the overall pitch range in Spanish and Hungarian yesno questions. The pitch variation was measured in the whole contour and in the major tonal inflection within the contours. Before obtaining the pitch variation values, the contours had been standardized with Cantero and Font- Rotchés’s method, to remove all insignificant micromelodic variations and the speakers’ idiosyncratic pitch characteristics from the curves. The comparison was made in a corpus consisting of 124 yes-no questions, 66 Spanish and 58 Hungarian utterances, partly read, partly spontaneous. After the analysis, we can see that the Spanish values are considerably higher in all the three fields: average pitch height, overall pitch range, as well as the pitch range found in the major tonal inflections.
Keywords: yes-no interrogatives, average pitch height, tonal standardization, overall pitch range, major tonal inflection
This study focuses on the analysis of translating activities especially on what cognitive processes can be observed during translation. To examine this we chose the thinking-aloud-protocol (TAP, a method originally used in cognitive psychology. We examined to what extend “thinking aloud had an effect on the working process of carrying out translations. We also studied how the two translators’ cognitive processes differed. We came to the result that it is necessary to involve other methods and techniques parallely with TAP in order to better understand the cognitive processes of translation.
Keywords: thinking-aloud-protocol (TAP), introspective method, empirical analysis, complexity
Below I analyze some of the arguments of the representatives of direct reference theory and of the opponent neo-freagean approach. According to the direct reference theorist, the content of a (proper) name is nothing more than its referent itself, while the neo-fregean insists that this content is a mode of presentation of the referent. In short, the latter is trying to get rid of the awkward, counter-intuitive consequences of the direct reference theory by attaching some kind of sense to the proper names. It is to be seen though, that these conceptions are far not unproblematic.
Keywords: philosophy of language, meaning, sense, direct reference
The present paper focuses on the Austinian approach to intentionality. My aim is to demonstrate that the Austinian concept and its application in the classical version of speech act theory are fundamentally different from the treatment of intentionality in the received version of speech act theory (as developed by Searle). The received version of speech act theory treats intentional states as a bunch of internal individual beliefs, desires, and intentions, while it assumes that conventions belong to the external social domains. Contrary to that, the Austinian version of speech act theory doesn’t make a sharp ideological distinction between intentional states and conventions as a result of Austin’s natural realism.
Keywords: Austin, beliefs, felicity conditions, intentions, knowledge, ordinary language philosophy, speech act theory
The present study focuses on the received version of speech act theory as developed by Searle. The aim of the paper is to demonstrate how Searle formulates precise and general conditions for illocutionary act individuation based on the linguistic description of inherent individual intentions. I argue for the impossibility of such individuation processes.
Keywords: collective intentios, illocutionary acts, individual intentions, Searle, sincerity conditions, speech act theory
The topic of the article is pragmatic analysis of original and translated texts, in terms of interpersonal relations. The research is of inductive type: it has been built on the phenomenon of "strangeness” in translated tourism texts. I analyse original Hungarian, original and translated German texts belonging to the same contextual background and the same text type. A comparable text corpora analysis will show the lexical, grammatical text structure properties of the original source tourism texts. The theoretical background is developed by Juliane House's pragmatic approach, Translation Quality Assessment (House 1997). The results of the analysis are: the German translated tourism texts are similar to the Hungarian source texts (descriptive, distant speaker’s stance is shown, declarative mode, predominantly 3. person verb forms, and address with nouns). The results of the present study suggest that we should implement changes in the tenor of discourse in the translations of tourism texts to save the communicative function in the target text.
Keywords: pragmatic analysis, comparable text corpora, interpersonal relations, strangeness in translated texts
We report a study of the metonymical idioms that incorporate body parts, exploring the role that body parts have in motivating different aspects of metonymical meaning in Jordanian Arabic. The study discusses a number of metonymy-based idioms that include lexis for parts of the body, showing that such idioms underlie and help structure our understanding of concepts and experiences in the world. The conceptual “intra-domain” mapping examined in this study underlies Jordanian people’s use and understanding of conventional idioms such as redhaired, blue-eyed, long-necked, strong-backed, broken-backed, thin-skinned, long-handed, etc. The paper demonstrates how rich the human body is in terms of being a source domain for metonymies. Also, all the conventional idioms reported in this study are to be viewed as clear-cut examples of metonymies, as used in Jordanian Arabic.
Keywords: idioms, metonymies, implicatures, explicatures, mapping, body parts
This article is a result of my research conducted within the framework of the German-Hungarian contrastive grammar project (dukg) initiated by the Institute of German Studies at the University of Debrecen. It aims to present the German and Hungarian speech acts and its forms of linguistic expression − taking example sentences from “real life” – relying on eminent members of the ordinary language philosophy like Austin and Searle, and on the grammar conception of the German linguist Ulrich Engel. The comparison within this framework allows the detection of parallelisms and contrasts between the two languages and it helps in preventing German- Hungarian interferences.
Keywords: speech acts, contrastive grammar, pragmatic
After a brief overview of the literature on complimenting strategies, we present the results of research aimed at finding gender-based differences in compliment response strategies based on Hungarian undergraduate students’ responses to discourse completion tasks. We found that in native language contexts, the patterns of the use of macro compliment response strategies are similar to those in previous research based on native speakers of English, however, female respondents participating in our research used more Agreement macro CRs in response to female compliments than to male ones, while male respondents offered Agreement macro strategies to male and female compliments with close to equal frequency. We have also found gender-based differences in the patterns of micro CR strategies as well as differences between Hungarian and EFL responses that are either due to misperceptions about native English norms or the lack of positive pragmatic transfer.
Keywords: cross-cultural pragmatics, gender-preferential differentiation, compliment response strategies
Over the last years, some studies have been done about the role of metaphor and conceptual blending (CB) in advertisements, but none of them have compared the two recent theories of metaphor, namely, conceptual metaphor and conceptual blending. Accordingly, the present study is an attempt, first, to study metaphor from the standpoint of these two theories and, second, to compare their effectiveness in explaining the metaphoric advertisements of some Iranian family journals. With this purpose in mind, 5 metaphoric adverts were chosen from the journals under investigation. To discover how the addressees understand the metaphoric adverts and to examine the effectiveness of the two theories, the adverts were shown to 30 college students. They were asked to identify the metaphor used in the adverts and to explain why the advertiser had used such a metaphor. The findings of the research show that conceptual metaphor theory (CMT) cannot explain metaphoric advertisements completely and conceptual blending should be used to explain metaphoric adverts as well. They also indicate that idiomatic expressions employed in these kinds of adverts cannot be explained by conceptual metaphor theory at all. Moreover, when conceptual blending was used in data analysis, it was observed that the adverts can be divided according to the network divisions: simplex networks, mirror networks, single-scope networks, and double-scope networks, as given in this theory.
Keywords: Metaphor, Metaphoric Advertisements, Conceptual Metaphor Theory, Conceptual Blending, Iranian Family Journals
Concordia, the goddess of unity and harmony, was an important figure in the coinage of the age of soldier Emperors, the period between Severus Alexander’s death (235) and Diocletian’s accession to the throne (284). The representation of Concordia became especially frequent during the second half of the period, in the reign of Aurelian and Probus, when her military aspect was emphasized. Before this era Concordia was represented with a patera and a cornucopiae, but from Claudius Gothicus and Aurelian ensigns started to be her most frequent attributes. However, these representations can not be seen as entirely new phenomena since their elements had been parts of the coinage system for centuries. The difference might be highlighted by two major aspects: the prevalence of Concordia and the prevalence of her attributes. The article makes an attempt to give an overview of this transformation.
Keywords: Concordia, third century, cornucopiae, ensign
The figures represented on the reverse sides of the Roman coins can tell a lot about the traditions of the Roman coinage, the everyday need of the imperatorial propaganda, as well as the cultural and religious aspects of those territories where they were used.
In my article I focus on the latter phenomenon and on the first decades of the Siscian mint (262-285). I concentrate on the representation of some gods, namely Iuppiter Mars, Hercules, Dea Roma, Sol.
Keywords: coins, Siscia, between Gallienus and Carinus, Iuppiter, Mars, Hercules, Dea Roma, Sol.
The aim of this paper is to provide a corpus-based, cross-linguistic investigation of the prefix über-. Using the Corpus of Contemporary American English and a Hungarian webcorpus, I have collected data containing instances of über- and assigned a rating of productivity based on Baayen’s (2009) productivity measures. Additionally, the bases to which über- is attached, the spelling of these constructions, genre in which they occur and their meaning have been examined in the corpus data set.
Keywords: productivity, English, Hungarian, corpus, prefix
The peculiarities of gender-assignment in the case of foreign- and loan-words are often analysed by linguists in order to be able to see if language-users apply the genus-rules with these nouns in the same way as they do it with German nouns. The aim of the present paper is to answer the following question: Is there a correspondence between the principles of gender-assignment in the case of German and loan-words, or are there any other factors that influence the gender of the latter?
Keywords: gender, loan-words, rules for assigning gender
In genus-research the question often arises whether the genus-rules deduced from descriptive linguistic analyses are actually applied by learners while acquiring genus and in the course of actual language use. The aim of this article is to investigate the efficiency of these rules during first or second language acquisition.
Keywords: gender, rules for assigning gender, language acquisition
The present article has the objective of giving an historical overview about the role of German as a former world language of science. The study consists of four chapters. After a brief introduction the second chapter depicts the transition of the language of science from Latin to German. The following section describes the trends in the 20. century on the basis of examples from different disciplines such as physics, medicine, chemistry etc. The last chapter deals with the reasons of the decline of German as the language of science.
Keywords: German as a language of science, historical overview, language of science