Nyelv és stílus
The present study makes an attempt at approaching Dezső Kosztolányi’s volume of poetry entitled Számadás (‘The final account’) with a novel, cognitive-poetical method, in the course of which it focuses on person marking and lyric apostrophe. The paper presents the poems in the volume in five distinct groups: (1) self-addressing poems, (2) when the apostrophic speech (other-addressing or self-addressing) is of unstable situation, (3) when the poems directly address the apostrophic addressee, imitating the style of everyday conversations, (4) when the addressee of the poem is named and is apostrophic, and (5) when there is no identifiable apostrophic addressee. According to the prototype principle, the study handles these categories as open ones, calling attention to overlaps and complex variations. The paper also reflects on earlier studies in poetics and criticism, partly corroborating them and partly offering new approaches. Based on the lessons drawn from the study of person marking, new perspectives and interpretations are feasible especially in the case of what are called self-addressing poems.
lyrics, cognitive poetics, person marking, apostrophe, self-addressing poem
The paper gives an analysis of person-marking constructions in two periods in János Pilinszky’s poetry. It is pointed out that person marking is not a mere identification or naming of one participant or grammatical function. The way person marking is construed allows the linguistic construal of a person. A person is a human being, able to give self-reflections, recognises her/his finite (and created) nature, in harmony with the environment, i.e. the basic factors of in-der-Welt-sein. A person is characterised as Dasein, having existence (existentia), and also essence (nature, essentia). The lyrical discourse intensifies this situation, reflected from both the ontological and ontic perspective, in an ever present continuous process for the recipient. The lyrical subject is postulated as someone being prior to the discourse, although a person being construed during the lyrical discourse; the recipient is a participant and a witness of this lyrical discourse, simultaneously. The paper investigates person-marking constructions in János Pilinszky’s poetry within the theoretical and methodological framework of cognitive grammar and cognitive poetics, concentrating on factors of person marking as follows: person marking on finite Hungarian verbs, nouns, pronouns; the status of schematic figures (trajectory and landmark); word order and person marking; verb type and person marking; profiling, salience, perspectivisation; reference frame; epistemic grounding and person marking. In the epochal volume Harmadnapon (‘On the third day’, 1959), person marking is not foregrounded, it is related to physical things without essentia; the first person singular is regularly not elaborated; albeit the reference frame of the poems is set up by the first person singular – in an attempt to get access and direct answer from God. In his late volumes (in the 1970s), Pilinszky’s poems are fragments of monologues, whereby the first person singular lyrical subject is either elaborated conceptually in an almost everyday style or totally implicated via subjectification, turning to God directly, being aware of getting the answer, though not in human terms.
epistemic grounding, lyrical subject, lyrical poetry, person, person-marking construction, perspective, reference frame, schematic figure
The goal of the paper is to study the poem Sewing of meagulls (Virályok sijjogása) by Péter Závada with regard to the question as to how person marking devices contribute to the emergence of a double perspectivisation in the lyrical discourse, and what semantic domains, figurative devices and linguistic constructions are involved in this process. The poem’s analysis shows that person marking contributes to the elaboration of fictive apostrophic discourse, further embedded discourses and referential scenes made accessible through these via highly complex processes. In the poem under study, apostrophic discourse can be interpreted as the speaker’s internal speech simulating the presence of the addressee. As a participant of the referential scene, the speaker adopts a position of observation and recollection. Objectivity results from the speaker’s onstage observing activity, with the figurativity of the addressee in the referential scene emerging as a function of the speaker’s mental processes.
person marking, lyrical discourse, apostrophic fiction, figurativity
The paper follows an extended interpretation of ‘lyric’ and ‘lyricism’, one that extends them beyond canonical texts of poetry, not only to folk songs, but also to the lyrics of pop music. On the other hand, an overall comprehensive definition of ‘lyric’ or ‘lyricism’ is not attempted. The author wishes to argue for that extended interpretation of ‘lyricism’ by a functional cognitive pragmatic description of the contextualising and perspectivising function of person marking, starting from the working of fictive apostrophic acts of pop song lyrics. Discussing problems of theoretical possibilities of a pragmatic description of person marking in pop lyrics, he gives a qualitative analysis of alternative lyrics and parts of lyrics based on his own researcher’s intuition, focussing on the following issues: (i) How do apostrophic acts of pop lyrics contribute to the construal of personal relationships and thereby to the processing of pop lyrics as lyrical discourse? (ii) What interrelationships are there in pop lyrics as lyrical discourse between constructions of person marking and space/time marking? (iii) What role is played by the socio-cultural situation of the participants of apostrophic discourse in style attribution processes of pop lyrics? (iv) How does person marking in pop lyrics contribute to the construal of characters as subjects, that is, as mental agents?
lyrics of pop songs, functional cognitive pragmatics, intersubjectivity, person marking, contextualisation, perspective
The study explores the linguistic structures of personification in descriptive poems by Attila József. Its main aim is to analyse and to categorise the semantic schemas of the corpus data from a cognitive point of view. Personification is considered to be a specific construction of person marking in poetry. The hypotheses of the investigation are that (i) the personifying structures in the corpus are predominantly verbal constructions, and (ii) personification as a category is a matter of degree: in its centre the personified entity is the trajector of the verb, whereas near the periphery of the category the personified participant is the secondary figure or personification is connected to the meaning of the verb indirectly. The analysis demonstrates that although verbal constructions have an important role in personifying construal, the pattern of the data is more complex than a simple centre‒periphery alignment. I also found a rich sub-pattern of non-verbal constructions that proved to be significant in person marking.
personification, person marking, semantic schema, corpus
This paper in anthropological linguistics and the anthropology of art offers a cultural historical and linguistic systematization of phenomena pertaining to a close relationship between animals and humans, as well as transitional creatures. Its sections are as follows: 1. Animals as symbols. 2. Zoomorphism: animal-human relationships and transitions: animals and children, non-human forefathers of man (origin myths), hybrid creatures (freaks), imitation of animals (animal imitation dances, vocal mimicry of animals), animal-human sexuality (bestiality, sodomy), friendship/relationship of animals and humans, transmigration of souls. 3. Anthropomorphism (extended zoomorphism): animals behaving like humans, speaking (writing) animals. (a) Inter-animal communication: animal talks to animal, (b) Inter-species communication: man talks the language of animals, communicates with animals: mimicry, communication by singing, talk to the animals, wolf children, “conversation” with pets; animal communicates with human. 4. The ancient symbiosis of man and beast. The relationship between animals and humans is organic, natural, self-evident, ancient, and is continuously present in human culture, communication, and our everyday lives.
anthropomorphism, zoomorphism, ethnolinguistic universals, animal/human transitions, hybrid creatures, the speech of animals, inter-animal/interspecies communication
A nyelvtudomány műhelyéből
This paper discusses the possible contributions of construction grammar to second language instruction and L2 curriculum design. Based on theories of construction grammar the paper examines the possibilities of their integration in L2 curriculum design. Furthermore, this study offers an example through the possible teaching of verbal constructions with the verbal prefix be- for a more effective teaching of Hungarian verbal constructions to foreigners. The paper presents the results of an empirical investigation (carried out on the Hungarian National Corpus) to prove the connection between the prototypical meaning of a construction and its token frequency. Summarising the results, the paper offers a usage-based teaching method of verbal constructions in Hungarian.
construction grammar, teaching Hungarian as a foreign language, verbal constructions with the verbal prefix be-, prototypical meaning, token frequency
Szó- és szólásmagyarázatok