Most sociolinguistic analyses of migrants draw heavily on concepts like community and diasporic identity. However, the modes and ways of migration have been going through alteration processes, and that is a major motivation to apply new approaches in investigating the intersection of migration and language. This paper addresses the issue of Hungarian Americans’ narratives about their multilingual identity and life situation with special attention to employment, linguistic repertoire, contacts with other migrants, and communication with people in the country of origin.
multilingualism, migration, Hungarian Americans, superdiversity, critical sociolinguistics
Nyelv és stílus
The examples given in this paper demonstrate that, in addition to onomastics and use of personal names, it is justified to consider also the different forms of address and mentions from a socioonomastic and pragmatic point of view. The reason for this is that these linguistic expressions reveal a great deal about the characters, their age and social status, gender, and not least their social relationships. In a monograph on literary onomastics, the analysis of the forms of address and references found in Kosztolányi’s novels and short stories could serve as an important complementary piece of research. The writer’s preferences in regard to this matter and the reader’s consideration together with the personal names clearly affect the manner of interpreting a work, and pertain to dynamic semantics from a receptive side. It may be worthwhile to study more closely whether genre-specific features may be linked to forms of address and mentions, or if it is worthwhile to conduct an analysis of other novels, such as the forms of address and mentions found in Sweet Anna. In this novel, the world is represented differently from The Golden Dragon and the social relations appearing in the story may reveal new aspects of the use of forms of address and mentions.
pragmatic approach, forms of address, mentions, interpretation possibilities, use of names
Most papers analysing Bram Stoker’s Dracula concentrate on the gothic tradition in which it is embedded, although it is another interesting feature of the novel that it includes diary entries, logs, letters and other text types. Focusing on the complex issue of the genre of the novel, we use an interdisciplinary methodology based on Bakhtin’s theoretical work and the principles of functional pragmatics to highlight the importance of these text types, especially diary, and detect some special features of the genre precisely. Diaries are not only texts produced in the scope of the narrative but also function as a mental shelter, a moral obligation, and a weapon. We analyse metapragmatic reflections as signs of metapragmatic awareness belonging to the language act of writing or reading a diary. Finally we underline the dynamic relation of a genre as an abstract category and a concrete instance of that category in a text.
diary, novel, genre, metapragmatic awareness, metapragmatic sings, contextualisation
A nyelvtudomány műhelyéből
The paper investigates the conversion of nouns into adjectives in Hungarian, in a cognitive linguistics framework. It explains the phenomenon of conversion in a functional perspective, with the help of metaphor and metonymy, with special emphasis on semantic focus, relevance theory, and the theory of ad hoc categories. In this approach, the adjectivization of nouns is, in most cases, a process that turns a lexeme into a metonymic representative of an extended category, that is, it comes to denote (bundles of) properties that are characteristic of both the source domain and the target domain. The study is based on a corpus of Hungarian names of domestic animals; one of the reasons is that animal names are rather suggestive examples of how certain characteristic features (like weakness, force, or stupidity) are attributed to given concepts or categories. The data are organised into extension sets illustrating when and how metaphoric and metonymic extension may serve as a basis of conversion.
conversion, metaphor, metonymy, adjectivization
The aim of this paper is to survey Hungarian speakers’ competence concerning place names. The author compiled a general-purpose questionnaire that participants were invited to fill in online. The survey involved 465 respondents and was organised around three main issues. It tried to find out whether there indeed is some kind of jointly possessed toponymic competence or, in other words, if there are models in our mental maps that can be said to be common for all Hungarian place name users and if our toponymic competence includes specific items known for everybody. Answers to these sub-questions were proposed to be gained by three task types. In the first task of the questionnaire, participants had to list place names that occurred to them in the given moment, and indicate which of these they thought were known by all Hungarian speakers. Then, they had to judge existing place names from the point of view of how typical they thought they were. Finally, in the last task, subjects had to provide appropriate names for places described for them.
socio-onomastics, toponymic competence, knowledge of place names
Szó- és szólásmagyarázatok
A Nyelvőr hírei