Nyelv és stílus
Some poems by Sándor Weöres are considered by literary scholars to be pieces of linguistic work of high-level musicality and craftsmanship, lacking logical thought or structure. The poem entitled Gravitation shows that this view is unfounded: the structure of the poem is based on an order of construction created by the poet, rather than on a formal system of permutation.
permutation, conditional logical operation, articulation and pragmatic information, text-sentence, sense of text, order of construction
One of the central issues in metaphor research is the interrelation of metaphors and cultural experience (Gibbs 2017; Kövecses 2005a, 2015; Sharifian 2011). As part of that research agenda, the notion of cultural metaphor has become one of the major categories of cultural linguistics (Sharifian 2011, to appear). The multidisciplinary theoretical framework interprets cultural metaphors within the set of cultural conceptualisations whose common trait is that they are rooted in a system of values and principles characteristic of a community. The aim of this paper is to outline the notion of cultural metaphor, and present its most important characteristics and dimensions of study in a cultural linguistic framework. First, its close connection is introduced with cultural schemas (including emotional schemas and event schemas) and cultural categories, and then it is argued that individual cultural metaphors cannot be taken to be elaborations of a more generic conceptual metaphor (Kövecses 2005ab). Next, it is discussed how source domains and target domains can be brought to bear on cultural cognition. Finally, metaphor preference (Benczes and Ságvári to appear) is discussed as an instance, broadly construed, of cultural metaphors. It is argued that, albeit cultural metaphors are of a conceptual nature, their conceptual structure is largely determined by cultural experience, hence their analysis primarily targets experiences and suppositions that make them culturally decisive. The theoretical claims of the paper are illustrated by cultural metaphors taken from Hungarian folk songs, along with examples borrowed from the relevant literature (Yu 2017; Yu–Jia 2016).
conceptualisation, cultural metaphor, cultural category, cultural schema, cognition
Nyelv és iskola
The theoretical introduction of this paper discusses János Arany’s approach to humour and his rhetorical erudition. For instance, he was quite clear about the difference between formal logical argumentation and rhetorical argumentation. By rhetoric, the present author means the original, complex notion of rhetoric, resting on two pillars: argumentation and style. A humorous application of argumentation is discussed, for instance, in Chaïm Perelman’s New Rhetoric. Arany’s humour is reflected by his application of rhetorical examples (paradeigma) and enthymemes, as well as that of toposes, that is, general sources of arguments. The paper cites a number of instances of toposes like definition (partition, categorisation), comparison, and relations (causeand- effect, opposition, contradiction), mainly from Arany’s epic poetry. Arany often employed parenthetical remarks, and humorous, sometimes ironic reflections and self-reflections. The profuseness of his style is illustrated by a handful of examples: ones that help the reader appreciate and comprehend sentence structures like comparatio paratactica and zeugma. The author emphasises that stylistic devices and topos logic (patterns of thought) are interrelated. That interrelation has always been a major concern in systems of rhetoric. Familiarity with it is important for two reasons. It helps us distinguish between tropes and figures, and it helps us define the individual stylistic devices. Literary historians used to emphasise the epic strand in Arany’s poetry for a long time; later on, lyrical poems came to the fore (as in the current experimental textbook for secondary schools), even though it has been pointed out repeatedly over the past quarter of a century that equilibrium should be reached in this respect. Remarks concerning shortcomings and instances of bias in schoolbooks also aim at creating balance. Arany’s poetry should be taught in today’s secondary schools in its complex and versatile entirety: not just a narrow segment of his oeuvre but the complete picture, including his humorous poems. And above all, János Arany the man and poeta doctus, given that “it would be hard to tell if he was greater as a writer and poet, or as a man”.
humour, rhetoric, argumentation, example, enthymeme, topos logic, construction, figures of speech, tropes
A nyelvtudomány műhelyéből
The ten-year development of the multifunctional BEA spontaneous speech database is noteworthy both nationally and internationally. This database contributes to the enlargement of the national cultural heritage: the preservation of the speech production and speaking styles of Hungarianspeaking adults of Budapest. By now, the database consists of a 367-hour recorded speech material produced by 461 adult speakers of ages between 18 and 90, recorded under the very same conditions. There are various descriptions of the speech materials including annotations of 139 subjects within the Praat software. There are numerous studies based on the speech materials of this database. Investigations concerned the acoustic-phonetic characteristics of the speech sounds, coarticulation processes, the phonology-phonetics interface, phrase-final lengthening, hiatus, speech melody, as well as various disfluency patterns and self-repair strategies in spontaneous utterances. Researchers focused also on the interrelations between speech planning and pronunciation that made it possible to describe spontaneous speech processes. The objective analysis of the speech production variability provides new ways to investigate individual characteristics of speech and language use in general.
speech, database, uniform protocol, text transcripts, database-based research
This paper examines nouns of foreign origin with strongly marked consonant clusters at the end and how they behave when Hungarian native speakers put them into the accusative case. Unlike other Hungarian nouns (or what speakers reckon as Hungarian nouns), a significant part of Hungarian native speakers put these nouns into the accusative case without a linking vowel (e.g. taps > tapsot but Hanks > Hankst) which is highly unexpected. The investigation took place within the framework of Optimality Theory. With the high-ranked constraint of Uniform Exponence, which requires the same syllabification of the nouns in question in the nominative and the accusative, and surmising that Hungarian native speakers use it as a method of estrangement, the phenomenon can be explained.
Optimality Theory, syllable structure, extrasyllabicity, linking vowel, Uniform Exponence constraint, consonant cluster
Linguistic research today is often based on electronic corpora containing large amounts of text (e.g. Hungarian National Corpus, Hungarian Historical Corpus). The spelling of names of corpora, however, exhibits quite some indeterminacy: for names consisting of several words, it is typical that each word is capitalised, but other irregular forms also occur. The paper investigates the names of the most widely known Hungarian corpora form the point of view of normative orthography. Suggestions are made concerning a uniform spelling of names of corpora that is in line with the rules of Hungarian orthography. Furthermore, orthographic issues concerning the abbreviations of corpus names are also discussed.
corpora, orthography, proper names, spelling of titles, abbreviations
A Nyelvőr hírei