A határon túliak államnyelvoktatásáról
The present study examines the characteristics of the teaching of the Slovak language in schools with Hungarian as the language of instruction in Slovakia, analyzing the factors that affect the teaching process and discussing the legal framework of education in Slovakia. It also looks at the teaching of Slovak as a foreign language and outlines the context of teaching Slovak as a state language, comparing the two in detail. An analysis of the place of the Slovak language among the school subjects is also provided, together with an outline of the national school curriculum of the teaching of Slovak Language and Slovak Literature, as it is regulated by law in Slovakia, at the various educational levels.
Hungarian minority in Slovakia, education, Slovak language, state language
The article deals with problematic issues of teaching the Ukrainian language as a state language (not a native language) in general educational institutions with Hungarian as the language of instruction in Transcarpathia from the point of view of integration, assimilation and segregation of the Hungarian national minority. During the 25 years of Ukraine’s independence (since 1991), the state has not provided the necessary conditions for the study of the state language in schools for national minorities. Teachers, educational programs, textbooks, dictionaries, and teaching aids are not adequately prepared. Students who study in schools with instruction in minority languages do not properly master the state language. Strategic reforms are necessary to change the current situation. Improvements in the study of the Ukrainian language in general education institutions with instruction via the national minority languages should be addressed in the system of language education, where the language of instruction is the mother tongue of students, and the state language is taught at a high level by specialists trained for such work.
L2 teaching, teaching the Ukrainian language, teaching the Ukrainian language as a state language for minorities, Hungarian national minority in Transcarpathia
The effectiveness of the Finnish school system and education is legendary. This paper aims to present the legal background of this educational system, with particular regard to the teaching of the second national language. According to the terminology used in Finnish education, the second national language is Finnish for Swedish native speakers, and Swedish for Finnish native speakers. This paper presents the aims of the teaching of the second national language, the content of the education, the skills to be developed and the forms of education. The paper also presents the relationship between the teaching of the second national language and that of foreign languages. It focuses on teacher training and introduces a new teaching methodology. It is pointed out that both the supportive social environment and the legal background are indispensable prerequisites of effective state language teaching for minorities. As a result of its history, Finland has created a conflict-free possibility of cooperation between the two cultural and linguistic groups.
Finnish education, second national language, state language teaching for the minorities
Hungarian minorities living in neighbouring countries around Hungary face serious difficulties concerning state language proficiency: the state language (e.g. Slovakian, Ukrainian, Rumanian, or Serbian) is taught for them at school with a methodology used for native speakers. This situation results in low level state language knowledge, and consequently causes significant drawbacks for minorities in higher level education, career and well-being. The present paper offers an effective solution. On the one hand, functional cognitive linguistics gives a solid basis for language pedagogy, since it is based on the unity of language system and use, the fundamental nature of speaker’s perspective, meaning a context. Second language education is much more efficient if it starts out from the interactive and intersubjective features of communication, focusing on joint semantic construal, instead of pure rules or communication in general. The first part of the paper summarizes the main tenets of functional cognitive linguistics. On the other hand, the similar or diverse linguistic constructions of the Hungarian mother tongue and the state language to be learned can be confronted and compared in functional language pedagogy, in order to see the identical or diverse ways of categorization and construal in the two languages. The last section of the paper gives some examples for such mutually helpful constructions.
bilingualism, construal, functional linguistics, language pedagogy, minority, mother tongue, L2 education, state language
Nyelv és stílus
The study analyses Gábor Török’s works, including in particular his studies written in an attempt to develop a general stylistic theory that goes beyond language. It highlights Török’s efforts to create a general (not only linguistic) stylistic theory and Török’s posthumously published studies focusing on a single pulpit (the Pulpit of Sant’ Andrea in Pistoia made by Giovanni Pisano) analysing it partly in a theory/history of art perspective and partly in a stylistic one in support of his general theory.
general stylistic theory, the Pulpit of Sant’ Andrea in Pistoia
A nyelvtudomány műhelyéből
The present paper is a study in historical pragmatics investigating some indicators of metacommunicative (or metapragmatic) awareness considering especially references to other letters with respect to writers with various attitudes, based on private letters written during the Middle Hungarian period. The data were taken from the correspondence of Tamás Nádasdy and Orsolya Kanizsai; Pál Nyáry and Kata Várday; Sándor Károlyi and Krisztina Barkóczy; Kata Csáky and Miklós Bethlen. The analysis reveals that the letters had various reflexions of the motives of writing (in the ones representing “writing for writing’s sake” as well as in cases where the exchange of letters was less regular). The use of two conventional elements (formulae) of the letters seems to be shaped by opposed intentions: the health formula was expressing a more personal and intimate attitude, while the formula “no more to you at this time” rather served as a pragmatic marker connecting the various parts or segments of the letters.
historical pragmatics, private correspondence, Middle Hungarian period, metacommunicative expressions, discourse references
Szó- és szólásmagyarázatok
A Nyelvőr hírei