Száz éve született Lőrincze Lajos
Nép és nyelv
A nyelvtudomány műhelyéből
Filled pauses are disfluency phenomena that often occur in spontaneous speech and have a variety of distinct functions. Usually, they provide extra time for the speaker to resolve some speech planning disharmony, to think of what to say next, to activate his/her mental lexicon, or to go through the process of converting speech intention into speech production. In this paper, filled pauses (ones that occur flanked by silent pauses and also ones that are adjacent to words on one side or on both sides) are analysed to see if the reason of the difficulty that arose in covert speech planning can be determined on the basis of surface (overt) phenomena. In narratives produced by two speakers, the duration of 104 filled pauses and 104 contexts of hesitation were analysed. The longest hesitations and hesitation contexts were due to some disharmony in thinking, while the duration of those attributable to difficulties in linguistic conversion were significantly shorter. It can be concluded that filled pauses and filled pause contexts, taken together, do indeed inherently contain information concerning any disharmony that occurs in covert speech planning processes.
Keywords: filled pause, filled pause context, speech planning disharmony, durations
This paper raises three problems with respect to deadjectival derivatives in Hungarian. 1. It presents some controversial interpretations of inchoatives in traditional work and in the more recent literature on verbal aspect. A new definition is offered, based on the international literature and the peculiarities of that group of verbs in Hungarian. The definition involves subgroups of verbs expressing change of state, modification of state, or the gradualness in change/modification of state. 2. It makes an attempt to circumscribe the morphological and semantic regularities of the type of derivation at hand. 3. It touches upon the relationship between inchoative or causative-inchoative verbs and verbal aspect, and systematises possible versions of the occurrence of verbs with or without a preverb as imperfective or perfective predicates.
Keywords: inchoative, change of state, Aktionsart, aspect, adjective
A One of the widely known typological features of Hungarian, inherited from Proto-Finno-Ugric, is that noun phrases modified by numerals or other quantifiers are morphologically in the singular, rather than the plural. This type of number agreement applies in the present-day standard, and was most probably also characteristic before the Conquest and throughout the period of Proto-Hungarian. Its uniform occurrence was then muddled in Old Hungarian due to the influence of Latin. After that, language use remained variable for many centuries to come with respect to the choice between singular and plural in quantified noun phrases. The present paper reviews the relevant literature and then discusses the competition between singular and plural in Old and Middle Hungarian on the basis of two electronic corpora of historical texts that were compiled and developed in the Research Institute for Linguistics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. The analysis explores diachronic changes in terms of both quantitative and qualitative criteria. It pays special attention to differences across types of quantifiers, differences across genres, and individual characteristics of the sources.
Keywords: electronic historical corpora, types of quantifiers, variability in number, diachronic and genre-based differences
Szó- és szólásmagyarázatok