The former, eleventh, edition of Rules of Hungarian Orthography served its users for over three decades. However, a collection of spelling rules does not last forever, given that language itself, and our ideas about it, change continuously. Thus, the rules have to be revised from time to time (every twenty or thirty years) in order to keep up with those changes. The Hungarian Language Joint Committee of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences started rewriting the rulebook in 2003. The article reviews the course of that project, and discusses the changes in the rules and in the accompanying large word list.
Keywords: new rulebook of Hungarian orthography, changes in Hungarian spelling
Nyelv és stílus
The title of the paper refers to the fact that the author analyses three pieces from Gyula Krúdy’s volume Vadszőlő (Fox Grape) in a textological and stylistic perspective. The three short texts were originally published in the Budapest daily Magyarország (Hungary), in 1923–24. As far as their genre goes, they can be characterised as sketches or notes, that is, they are of an intermediate quality between publicism and belles lettres. The analysis is done using what is called the global method: the author starts from the whole of the text and proceeds toward finer details. This is, then, a fundamentally deductive approach. Its point of departure is a principle of text organisation, an overarching property whose effect is extended to all constituent elements, and one that the analyst attributes to the text. The most important and most often used principle of text organisation is opposition. The three stylistic text analyses try to trace these writings by Krúdy back to the text organising effect of some opposition (or the joint and interlaced operation of several instances of opposition). The paper ends with a brief conclusion.
Keywords: stylistics, textology, publicistic style, literary style, global analysis, principle of text organisation, opposition
Nyelv és iskola
In this paper, we studied the hearing-based speech processing abilities of 16 and 18-year-old secondary school students in terms of their notes taken in class. We were trying to find out how students’ speech perception and speech comprehension processes operated in this special communicative situation based on semi-spontaneous speech. We analysed how exactly they were able to record what they were told and what kinds of errors they committed at the various levels of perception. We also analysed how these errors were related to temporal properties of teachers’ utterances. The results show that the difficulties of auditively-based speech processing interact with problems of verbal memory (irrespective of subjects’ age) and with inadequacies of the subprocesses of speech perception (more severely with younger than with older subjects). A typology of perceptual errors was set up and temporal properties of the utterances were objectively analysed using instrumental techniques. It turned out that it was not teachers’ fast speech tempo as such that typically accounted for the errors. What made the students perceive the teachers’ speech as too fast was their own memory deficits and difficulties in speech processing. Inadequacies of note taking techniques may also underlie the less than fully efficient schoolwork of these students.
Keywords: note taking, selection, written sketch, acoustic-phonetic-phonological perception, discrimination deficit, serial perception, speech comprehension, verbal memory
A nyelvtudomány műhelyéből
The paper presents one possible interpretation of the word feʒe of Funeral Sermon (the oldest surviving Hungarian text), a word whose correct interpretation has long been debated. This solution is based on evidence coming from an error typology of Old Hungarian, even though the occurrence of the word itself is not taken to be an error, unlike in some earlier views. Rather, it is claimed to be a representation of the word vésze ‘its peril’ in a form that is characteristic of the pronunciation of contemporary German-speaking ecclesiastic speakers (copiers). The author offers a multi-faceted consideration of the solution proposed: she brings up analogies from error typology, and arguments from the history of spelling and ecclesiastic history. She also confronts her own suggestion with Loránd Benkő’s criteria.
Keywords: Funeral Sermon, copying error, typology of errors, German contact effect, history of orthography, early church organisation
This paper argues that Hungarian finite clauses display a self-similar structure by including a core component which functions as a “clause within the clause”. The core is a catena of elements which schematically profiles a grounded process, and has the capacity to code (certain types of) illocutionary force and (positive) polarity as well. Drawing on recent advances in Langacker’s Cognitive Grammar, the author argues that the “baseline” function of the core is that of a schematic positive declarative clause, with departures from the baseline marked by word order and/or by various morphological, lexical and prosodic devices. The proposal is set against the author’s description of Hungarian finite clauses as multi-dimensional networks, with separate dimensions accounting for complementary aspects of the clauses’ meaning and form.
Keywords: self-similarity, core component, catena dimensions, grounded process, illocutionary force, polarity, inversion, overriding
The present paper is a case study in historical semantics examining metaphorical expressions and constructions of illness and recovery with respect to their capacity to uphold conventions in usage and to maintain the collective experiences of speech communities. Data was taken from documents of 16–18th century witch trials, most notably witness depositions that tell of individuals unexpectedly falling ill, and of the witch hunts that ensued consequently. The aim of the paper is to explore various segments of the vocabulary of a distinct conceptual sphere and the ways of expressing the knowledge, beliefs and impressions which were characteristic in these communities according to the testimonies. The semantic extensions at hand can emerge from all sorts of direct physical experience: some of the idioms are probably ancient in origin, while others are rather new, and come about as a result of analogical change. The most characteristic phrases of the period, however, are today separated from past beliefs.
Keywords: metaphor, semantic extension, witch trials, vocabulary of illness and recovery
The paper examines language ideologies that are explicated or presented implicitly in metalinguistic discourse about Hungarian obscenities. The present author interprets obscenity as a stylistic device. We can define language ideologies as notions that appear in discursive practice, have impact on one’s language behaviour and linguistic activity, and determine and ground one’s attitudes to others’ language use. The paper qualitatively examines three groups of speakers of the same age range, but of different sociocultural backgrounds. The presentation focuses on the results of interviews that are sorted out into four main categories: decay of language and language use, language ideologies connected to standardization, indexicality, and ideologies concerning the ‘beauty’ of the Hungarian language. The aim of the paper, in addition to presenting language ideologies related to Hungarian obscenities, is to point out the controversial functional mechanism of ideologies.
Keywords: language ideologies, sociolinguistics, obscenities, indexicality
The task of defining the relationships among emotion concepts and exploring their knowledge structure can be seen as an area of overlap between research in cognitive semantics and that in cognitive psychology. This paper aims at a cognitive semantic description of the knowledge structure that may be attributed to Ekman’s ‘basic emotions’, with special emphasis on the function of networks of polysemy (Tolcsvai Nagy 2012, 2013, Cruse and Croft 2004, Geeraerts 1997) that can be assumed in the analysis of that group of concepts. Of the basic emotions, it is joy whose knowledge structure is analysed here. The analysis starts from the relevant entry (öröm ‘joy’) in A Defining Dictionary of Hungarian, and compares it to results of searches in the ‘personal’ subcorpus (region: Hungary) of the Hungarian National Corpus. The systematisation of the information found in the dictionary is done by using scenarios known from cognitive semantics and frame semantics (Fillmore 1982, Neisser 1984, Eysenck and Keane 2003). This approach facilitates comparison with the concordance list, making it possible to describe the components of knowledge structure with respect to the occurrence in context of the given emotion concept, and the knowledge structure pertaining to the emotion concept at hand can be portioned out into several different scenarios. With the methodology we use, it becomes possible to investigate whether different scenarios are assigned to the various separate dictionary meanings in the case of a given concept. On that basis, the existence of several interrelated meanings can be assumed, with semantic links across them: a state of affairs that can be interpreted as a network of polysemy in view of the basic meaning associated to the shared concept.
Keywords: cognitive linguistics, semantics, polysemy, emotions, scenario
Szó- és szólásmagyarázatok