The present paper attempts to exemplify the late medieval principle that was the basic idea and aim of reformation: to make the Bible accessible for commoners, and to do so with respect to other documents (like laws and statutes) that concern their everyday lives. It was with that aim in mind that some highly technical texts, including Werbőczy’s Tripartitum, were translated into Hungarian, Croatian, and German. The present author has discussed these translations earlier; in this paper, he analyses the Hungarian and Croatian versions of Article I of Part One of Tripartitum. In particular, he shows how some portions of the original text were omitted and how translators abridged some others; he also touches on certain terminological issues. In some cases, he also presents the conceptual background of individual expressions.
Keywords: Werbőczy, Tripartitum, Hungarian and Croatian translations, popularized legal “terminology”
Nép és nyelv
Ukraine, independent since 1991, has recently been experiencing the greatest crisis of her history. The conflicts have a number of severe reasons. The language divide in the country plays a crucial role in the political and military crisis which even threatens Europe’s safety. A significant proportion of Ukraine’s population use both Ukrainian and Russian on a regular basis. This paper presents how Ukraine’s political elite wished to settle the language issue by adopting a law regulating the use of these two languages. The analysis makes the trajectory of the Ukrainian language policy transparent from the last years in the Soviet Union up to the first military conflicts
Keywords: Ukraine, language policy, language situation, language law, language conflict, military conflict
Nyelv és stílus
This paper sketches the role of style as a type of linguistic formation in Hungarian and European communities of the turn of millennium. Language is both the medium and the essence of autopoietic and self-reflexive cultural processes. Formerly, style used to indicate the degree of alignment with conventions; but from the second half of the eighteenth century, it gradually became one of the indicators of identity and individual divergence in everyday social behaviour. In that metamorphosis of the role of style, socio-cultural factors gained an ever increasing role (as opposed to the stylistic potential of the language system, often seen as an absolute value), developed and maintained by a cultural community via assigning sense to formation types by cultural attributions. Thus, with respect to the speaker, style is a matter of subjectification: the speaker, in generating style, is primarily involved in linguistic construal in an implicit manner. By the turn of the millennium, the function of style had been gradually changed within Hungarian culture by important urban-based or popular groups, networks, sociological or geographical layers of speakers. Such linguistic behaviour has an emergent character and is characterised by innovation and variety, the pursuit of momentary effect, and internet-based communication. The paper illustrates this point by metaphors expressing highvelocity movement and having an aggressive source domain
Keywords: community, identity, inidividual, style, socio-cultural factors, subjectification
Dezső Kosztolányi’s 1929 poem “When you are over forty...” is an example of aesthetic experience being grounded in linguistic materiality that is hardly ever achieved by poems that are similarly “under-rhetorised” in terms of tenor and diction. The events referred to in the poem are not only ambiguous with respect to who is talking but even counteract their own semantic interpretability, too. The artistic effect of this very special work of art, therefore, is crucially based on material signals of the non-individualisable “experience” of perception and apperception and on the “objectification” of the incommunicable knowledge of the senses
Keywords: modernity in Hungarian poetry, Dezső Kosztolányi, “When you are over forty”, phenomenality, materiality, linguistic eventuation, aesthetic experience
While hermeneutics relates to language in an entirely distinguished manner, and appreciates it more than anything in terms of understanding and revealing the world, it is fundamentally critical towards philosophy of language and any school of thought bearing that name. A reason for that paradox, as well as a key to it, is provided by what Gadamer says about this: in a hermeneutical perspective, “the problem of language is seen right from the beginning not in the same sense as what philosophy of language asks about.” This paper attempts to reconstruct some characteristic features of the hermeneutic approach to language. One crucial component of that approach is a return to everyday language use, implying that the scientific – in our case, linguistic – use of language (the language of linguistics) presupposes a different way of relating to the world, hence it cannot do justice to language in the same way as it is given first and foremost in everyday life and language use, albeit “language use” is a rather imperfect label given that language is not a tool that can be used or not used at will.
Keywords: language, linguistics, language of linguistics, relation to the world, objectification, hermeneutics, philosophy of language
A nyelvtudomány műhelyéből
Temporal characteristics of speech are affected by several factors, like speech style or speakers’ age and gender. In this study, temporal features (speech rate, articulation rate, pauses) of the speech of young and elderly men and women were analysed in four different speech styles. The results show that speech style has the strongest effect on the parameters analysed, while the weakest effect is that of the speakers’ gender.
Keywords: speech tempo, pauses, speech style, age, gender
The aim of the paper is to analyse the connections of stylistic potential, socio-cultural factors of style and semantic structure in the case of four Hungarian neologisms (gáz, király, zsír, sirály, meaning either ‘awkward, embarrassing’ or ‘awesome, cool’) converted from nouns to adjectives. The analysis is conducted within a functional-cognitive framework, and is based on the Theory of Mental Spaces (Espaces Mentaux) and on Conceptual Integration Theory (Intégration Conceptuelle, blending) elaborated by Gilles Fauconnier and Mark Turner. After giving a definition of the notion of neologism, the paper offers explanations and reasons for the advantages of using blending in the case of the analysis of neologisms. With the help of “compression”, suggested by Fauconnier–Turner (2009), and data gathered from Hungarian informants, not only the semantic and (if necessary) phonological features of the neologisms, but also relevant stylistic qualities, which are based on the socio-cultural factors of style, can be represented graphically.
Keywords: neologism, conversion, mental space, conceptual integration, blending, sociocultural factors of style
Szó- és szólásmagyarázatok
A Nyelvőr hírei