After a brief survey of the traditions of research in Hungary on the origin of sayings, proverbs, and adages, the paper introduces and exemplifies the principles of compilation of a Hungarian phraseological etymological dictionary under preparation, presents excerpts from the dictionary that will explain and discuss the origin of over 1600 phrasemes, and statistically analyses the linguistic, cultural-historical, historical, literary, ethnographic and intercultural sources of the phrasemes to be included in that dictionary.
Keywords: lexicography, phraseography, phraseology, etymology
Nép és nyelv
The author used published lists of geographical names from three counties of Southern Transdanubia (Baranya, Somogy, and Tolna) for his investigations. In the introduction, he gives a survey of the history of South Slavic immigration to Hungary during and after Turkish rule. The first, longer, part of the paper focuses on occurrences of South Slavic (Croatian, Serbian, and a few Slovenian) geographical names.
Keywords: published lists of geographical names in the counties of Southern Transdanubia (Baranya, Somogy, Tolna); the history of South Slavic immigration to Hungary during and after Turkish rule
A nyelvtudomány műhelyéből
A peculiar form of address in Hungarian, belonging to the polite register of language use, is the use of the auxiliary tetszik ‘pleases (you)’ + infinitive (as in Hogy tetszik lenni? ‘How are you?’; literally: How does it please you to be?), an extra version of V-form used in addition to T-forms and V-forms proper. The aim of the present paper is to discuss the use of tetszik and the assessment of its role by participants in doctor/patient communication. The possible roles of the use of tetszik are investigated on the basis of questionnaire data from a specifically style-related point of view. Data concerning the style of the use of tetszik are presented in three respects: (1) proportions of the use of tetszik in doctor/patient communication; (2) style assessments and attitudes to the use of tetszik by doctors and patients; and (3) probable strategies of its use. On the basis of the data we conclude that the use of tetszik is a form of address that is prototypically respectful but still familiar and friendly, and one that takes the age, gender, and relative status of the interlocutors into consideration. Our study points out that style attributions concerning tetszik should not be interpreted on their own but rather as part of a process constituting the interlocutors’ mutual relationship in terms of speakers’ strategies. As used by doctors, tetszik forms serve the reduction of distance; in the case of patients, however, the avoidance of tetszik forms is dominant as a strategy for rejecting an inferior status
Keywords: doctor/patient communication, V-forms of address, socio-cultural factors of style, informal/formal speech situations, style selection strategies
The author has been studying the history of Hungarian chess terminology for years now. In this paper, he looks at how chess terminology and chess as an activity are represented in The Defining Dictionary of Hungarian (1959–1962). Chess-related items are classified, on the one hand, in terms of what lexicographic status or position they have in the entries of the dictionary, where the possible ranks/positions are headword, collocation, (free) example constructed by the lexicographers, or literary citation illustrating the word’s meaning. On the other hand, the author investigates whether the headword of a given chess-related entry is a central or peripheral member of the terminology of chess, or else it falls outside that terminology. Lexical labels, semantic definitions, free examples and citations are submitted to a critical assessment. It is also presented how the chess-related material of The Defining Dictionary of Hungarian differs from that of either edition of A Concise Dictionary of Hungarian (1972, 2003), and from that of the volumes of A Comprehensive Dictionary of Hungarian published so far (2006–2013). In conclusion, the author mentions some of his plans for the future with respect to the research on chess terminology
Keywords: Hungarian defining dictionaries, chess terminology, lexicographic function, centre and periphery, comparison of dictionaries
The texts of digital communication lie on the frontiers of traditional orality and literacy (cf. Koch and Oesterreicher’s notions of conceptual and medial orality and literacy), and visuality plays a far more important role in ICT than it played in earlier text transmission techniques. These two basic characteristics result in novel ways of expressing emotions: in addition to the explicit verbal description of emotions and the use of interjections customary in traditional written texts, digital texts also feature verbal smileys (e.g.: facepalm, headdesk), stem-like “inflectives” inserted between asterisks (borrowing the German term Inflektiv which means a verb-form without inflection, mainly in the language of comics, German example: *daumendrück*), and visual elements: emoticons and reaction gifs. While emoticons may take the form of keyboard characters or image files and can be static or dynamic, reaction gifs always represent an animated series of images. Reaction gifs are short motion picture files that can be sent as response in different conversational situations in digital communication to express emotions, but in a more intensive way than emoticons; they also present scenes extracted from mostly well-known movies, and one of their main components is humor. The paper is an attempt to identify the communication-related characteristics of reaction gifs, as a form of expressing emotion unifying visuality and the time aspect. After an overview of fundamental assumptions of linguistic research on digital communication, the author presents the results of an empirical research on reaction gifs
Keywords: digital communication, orality, visuality, literacy, smiley, inflective, emoticon, reaction gif
In this paper I concentrate on using the Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST) in the study of reading comprehension. In the first section of the paper I analyse a lifestyle consulting text within the frame¬work of the theory. As a result of the analysis, the comprehensive locus of effect is identified. The comprehensive locus of effect is the most important portion of the text that represents the essence of the whole text. In the second section of the paper I examine the reading habits and comprehension of 50 adults. They had to read and understand the lifestyle consulting text. Results show that the comprehensive locus of effect according to the RST usually coincides with the intuitive perception of the readers. Furthermore, there is correlation between the ability to find the comprehensive locus of effect and the critical level of reading comprehension
Keywords: Rhetorical Structure Theory, reading comprehension, comprehensive locus of effectt
Szó- és szólásmagyarázatok