Hungarian and Croatian translations of István Werbőczy’s Tripartitum
This paper compares Balázs Veres’ Hungarian translation and Ivan Pergošić’s Croatian translation of István Werbőczy’s Tripartitum. The textual analyses presented focus on the translators’ command of the language and knowledge of the subject, as well as their shared objective, making the text of the penal code accessible for common people. The linguistic structure of the texts, including the equivalents of particular Latin constructions, would be a separate topic for investigation. The latter investigation (that the author had been prompted to embark on by the late László Hadrovics) is among the author’s plans for the near future.
Keywords: Tripartitum, Decretum, Balázs Veres, Ivan Pergošić, mutual influences between languages
Nyelv és stílus
The role of construal operations in the conceptualization of Trianon
Trianon is a deeply entrenched concept in the Hungarian culture since 1920. Due to its alternative conceptualizations, there are several TRIANON cultural models, determined by the date and type of discourse, the context, etc. The study hypothesizes that the conceptualizers’ knowledge about Trianon is construed in alternative ways. The cultural models, being part of the conceptual system, are made up by conceptual metaphors and metonymies, image schemas, etc. The construal operations connected to attention (e.g. focusing, foregrounding and backgrounding, perspectivization, subjectivization, and objectivization) are responsible for the conceptualizers’ selection among the elements of the conceptual system. This assumption is proved by a discourse sensitive analysis of construal operations.
Keywords: cognitive linguistics, construal operations, TRIANON cultural models, discoursebased analysis
A nyelvtudomány műhelyéből
Characteristic properties of sublexical speech errors
The phonetic patterns of sublexical speech errors that occurred in spontaneous narratives of 12 speakers were analyzed. The speech material amounted to 8 hours and contained 140 errors. The goal of the study was to describe the underlying mechanism of sublexical errors in terms of their articulation patterns, the distances between the speech sounds produced and the corresponding targets, and the nature of the editing phases in the case of repaired speech errors. In terms of their sources, five types of errors were defined: anticipations, perseverations, exchanges, slips of the tongue, and mixedsource errors. Results show specific ratios in the occurrence of sublexical errors: substitutions occurred in 77.1%, deletions in 12.8%, and insertions in 10.1%, of all cases. The durations of editing phases seem to depend heavily on the type of the surface error. Details of the speech production processes underlying our findings are discussed in the paper.
Keywords: speech errors, context-dependency, phonetic distance, editing phases, spontaneous speech
Semantic differentiation in plural forms of nominals
In this paper, the author argues against the commonly accepted view that the singular vs. plural opposition is a purely grammatical one in Hungarian, that is, the view that pluralisation is a grammatical phenomenon that never results in any semantic modification. The topic goes back to Jászay (1999) pointing out, in view of some Russian examples, that the meaning of certain singular nouns undergoes differentiation under pluralisation in that language. The collected Russian examples prove that pluralisation often yields a different lexical item, that is, the plural marker seems to have a derivational function in certain cases. The present author has found quite some Hungarian nouns, too, whose meaning in the plural differs to some extent from the meaning of the base form (the singular). This suggests that the plural marker -(V)k has derivational suffix-like functions in this language as well.
Keywords: grammatical opposition, inflectional suffix, derivational suffix, morphosemantic transparency, compositional meaning, lexicalisation
Serial hesitations in spontaneous speech: their frequency, form, and function
It is often found in spontaneous speech that difficulties arising during the speech planning process result in a series of adjacent hesitations, rather than an isolated instance of hesitation, representing the speaker’s uncertainty of what to say next. In the present paper the term serial hesitation will be used for disfluency phenomena involving several portions of contentless vocalisation, either accompanied by silent pauses or not, that include at most two words sandwiched between adjacent hesitations in a coherent context. Our aim is a quantitative and qualitative investigation of instances of this phenomenon, involving questions pertaining to their frequency of occurrence, pattern of occurrence, reasons of emergence and functions. The questions are answered in terms of an instrumental phonetic analysis; the material is provided by recorded spontaneous speech samples of primary and secondary school pupils. The results show that serial hesitations are rather frequent and are often due to a combination of several reasons. In the case of primary school pupils, they tend to be based on lack of things to say or lengthy periods of speech planning; but difficulties in formulating their ideas may lead to serial hesitations even in the case of our oldest subjects. Problems of linguistic transformation can also arise in all age groups; but in the case of the oldest secondary school students, they account for far more serial hesitations than in other age groups. Formally, serial hesitations tend to be fairly similar across age groups.
Keywords: hesitation, disfluency caused by speaker’s uncertainty, serial hesitations, types of serial hesitations, duration of serial hesitations
Some new ideas on appositions
Certain types of appositions (attributive and identificational) are subsumed under a single category in the Hungarian linguistic tradition despite the fact that they have dissimilar properties and hence should not necessarily be assigned identical structures. In the case of attributive appositions (adjectives that follow their head noun) agreement with the predicate and word order constraints exclude their analysis both as subordinative and as coordinative constructions. Assuming a new, transitional category, on the other hand, fails to answer the question of what structure should be assigned to them. The present author proposes a structure involving coordination of two clauses with subsequent ellipsis. In the case of identificational apposition, agreement is determined not only by adjacency but also by marked values of plurality and definiteness, and the relevant data sometimes show properties characteristic of coordination and sometimes those of subordination, depending on the agreement facts. Unlike in the previous case, here the construction cannot be analysed as clausal coordination plus ellipsis. It is left for further research to find an adequate structural analysis of identificational apposition, excluding the possibility of a transitional category.
Keywords: attributive apposition, identificational apposition, subordination, coordination, ellipsis, agreement
The function of section marks in Hungarian codices
One of the less clearly understood issues in the history of punctuation is the problem of section marks (§). The literature traditionally takes them to be markers of paragraphs/sections. Recently, however, the suspicion arose that this may be a more complex issue, both formally and functionally, than had been thought previously. Given that section marks primarily occurred in codices (as opposed to other early documents of Hungarian), the author surveyed some 50 Hungarian codices, of which it was in 18 codices (primarily Franciscan ones) that section marks occurred at all. Then, she investigated the form and function of section marks in 17 of those codices. The function of section marks was traditionally discussed in terms of grammatical segmentation. On the basis of the data of the 17 codices, it turned out that they marked off chapters in 0.8% of the cases, paragraphs or blocks of paragraphs in 32.3%, and sentences in 27.8%. They occurred between clauses or between smaller constituents in 32.3%, they represented features of intonation in 0.7%, they had an honorary function in 3.1%, some other function in 2.2%, and a separative function in 0.8% of all cases. Thus, the data show that the functions of section marks are far more variegated than had been assumed; but it also turned out that, even though it is possible to study the functions of section marks in structural terms, this does not fully reveal their true role. Briefly, their awareness-raising and enhancing function is far more important than their role in grammatical segmentation.
Keywords: section mark, paragraph, awareness-raising/enhancing function, punctuation in codices
Szó- és szólásmagyarázatok