A pattern of expressing linguistic polarity or, what is frightfully good?
This paper studies linguistic polarity in enhancement and collocation preference in a cognitive linguistic framework and using empirical methods, on the example of the enhancing expression félelmetesen ‘frightfully’. It is stated that the domain of negative emotions can be activated in semantic structure in an enhancing role, and can be processed as such during comprehension. The adverb under study, analogously to strong emotional effects, adds the meaning component ‘with high intensity’ to both positive and negative polarity expressions. Our corpus study has revealed that félelmetesen is more typically associated with positive than with negative value adjectives. Enhancing expressions taken from a negative source domain are in general use in European languages; this is not unrelated to neurological processes connected with fear and to the role of negative emotions in human behaviour.
Keywords: linguistic polarity, enhancement, negative emotion, congruence, collocation preference
Nyelv és stílus
A quantitative comparison of Zsigmond Kemény’s novel and Zsigmond Móricz’s revision
In 1940, Zsigmond Móricz revised Zsigmond Kemény’s historical novel The zealots (1858) set in the age of 17th-century wars of religion in order to make the reception of this valuable literary piece easier and more enjoyable for twentieth-century readers. In the present paper, the author uses the method of quantitative stylistics to compare the original novel with its revised version. In particular, he seeks answers to the following questions: – What quantitative indices can be established in the two texts from the level of syllables via those of words, clauses, and sentences, up to the level of paragraphs? – What are the proportions of occurrence of the major parts of speech (nouns, adjectives, verbs)? – How densely spaced are linguistic images; how high is the image saturation of the two texts? – To what extent did Móricz shorten the original text and what were the reasons of such abridgement; which parts were less and which parts were more or even radically curtailed? Finally, by way of a summary, the author tries to characterise and evaluate Móricz’s revision work.
Keywords: style, stylistics, quantitative stylistics, sentence structure, linguistic image, image saturation.
Nyelv és iskola
Visual and acoustic A creative approach to Endre Ady’s In the Sieve of Time.
The poem entitled In the Sieve of Time is a major piece in Endre Ady’s “fate poetry”. In order to reveal its merits, a number of perspectives may be adequate: in addition to historical, prosodic, semiotic, etc. approaches, the creative method may also be fruitful. Ady’s poems in general, and In the Sieve of Time in particular, are typically explicit (contain prosodically well formed sentences and constructions) and therefore – together with their graphical aspects – crucially influence their recitals. One way of approaching a poem creatively, getting prepared for reciting it, is stripping its written (graphic) appearance of the visible tools of articulation. One result of the creative analysis presented here is that reading a poem aloud is not recital. Reading aloud is just that: reading (or, in schools, reading out); whereas poetry recital involves declamation, that is, emphatic delivery. Another result is that poetry recital is a specifically selfish interpretation of a poem. A person who recites poetry works with her own interpretation; creative analysis of a poem compares a number of individual recitals, studying their similarities and differences
Keywords: poetry recital, creative method, graphic image, acoustic structure, feet.
A nyelvtudomány műhelyéből
From cooperation to compassion. The representation of death and elaboration of mourning in community pages
Online elaboration of mourning is a kind of techno-spiritual practice, one typical area of which involves communication with the deceased and postmortal profile management via community pages. This paper surveys the international literature on the connection between elaboration of mourning and community pages and compares its results with posts and comments having to do with the topic of death and appearing in Hungarian on Facebook. This corpus-based study confirms the claims concerning messages of that type in English-language community pages. Along with the obvious emotive function, mourning texts occurring in social media may fulfil referential (information on the funeral, circumstances of death), appellative (notification, sale of the deceased’s objects), phatic (condolence, last farewell to and/or continuous contact with the deceased, especially in connection with holiday seasons), metacommunicative (the issue of the adequacy of online mourning) and aesthetic functions (quotations from poems or prose; pictures, montages, presentations concerning topics of the elaboration of mourning). With respect to the phatic function, we also cover the issue of legitimacy/illegitimacy of mourning (death tourism, trolls). In connection with the appellative function, we discuss cases in which message senders utilise increased attention caused by someone’s death for purposes of marketing. We present types of unique messages in terms of quotations, formulaic situational sentences and individualised texts. The occurrence of religious themes is relatively infrequent in the digital corpus studied here. A special Facebook feature is ‘Like’ that, in this context, means a special manifestation of sympathy and commemoration rather than the fact that the reader is pleased by the contents of a message.
Keywords: digital communication, online mourning, elaboration of mourning, online grief
Schema and construal in narrative texts about history
The paper investigates the typical conceptual elaborations of the characters (e.g. Napoleon, English army, Russia) in narrative discourses about history in the framework of Ronald W. Langacker’s cognitive grammar. The characters can be construed as historical figures or as abstract systems. The way of the conceptualization of characters is motivated by different schemata which work on different levels of the narrative texts. Using quantitative analysis I demonstrate that on the level of clauses the thematic roles of the characters motivate the conceptualization of the characters as schema: the character in the role of patient is not construed on a more abstract level than the character of the same construction in the role of agent. I also establish another schema related to the narrative world of the text: the central characters of the physical, social, and mental world of the narrative texts are conceptualized in a more concrete and humanlike way than the peripheral characters. The schema related to the central characters can overwrite the schema related to thematic roles
Keywords: historiography, cognitive grammar, construal, profiling, historical figure, metonymy, narrative text, schema, agent, patient, salience
Are you being ironic? Analysis of irony and its cues at the distinct linguistic levels
In this paper I concentrate on linguistic cues which may indicate the speaker’s ironical intention. I present contextual and linguistic cues at various linguistic levels (e.g. the role of hyperbole and litotes; the pragmatic meanings of the Hungarian extreme degree prefix and diminutive derivational suffixes; zeugma; an add-on type of expansion of turn-constructional units (TCU), and prosodic contrast. In order to account for markers (ostensive stimuli) of the intended ironical utterances, it is worth describing these stimuli within the framework of ostensive-inferential communication (Sperber and Wilson 1995). Two types of intentions (i.e., communicative and informative intentions) help us separate irony from its cues.
Keywords: irony, ostenzive stimuli, communicative intention, informative intention, ironical intention
Szó- és szólásmagyarázatok