The representation of sound effects and human body part movements in Hungarian: Comments on the issue of Aktionsart
This paper discusses the linguistic representation, in Hungarian, of human and other sound effects, as well as of major movements of the hand, foot, or head, in the framework of natural linguistic theory. We study the oppositions of words referring to momentary sound effects or actions and sets of their repetitions, as well as groups of verbs found along the cline of iterativity to durativity, to see how sensory experience is process ed by human cognition, how it is transformed into an iconic unity of linguistic content and form in the course of verbalisation. With a reconsideration of formal features of Aktionsart, we argue that there are two ways in which Aktionsart is represented in Hungarian: on the one hand, it can be a lexical category of verb classes exhibiting definite grammatical features of punctuality vs. iterativity; on the other hand, it can also result from derivational processes.
Keywords: Aktionsart, iconicity, instantaneousness, iterativity, durativity
A nyelvtudomány műhelyéből
A chapter from the history of extinct conjunctions: the emergence and use of hogyki ‘that who’
The emergence of complex Hungarian conjunctions involving a sequence of hogy ‘that’ and a relative pronoun is normally assumed to have been based on situations in which the two conjunctions happened to occur adjacently at the beginning of certain types of clauses and their use subsequently spread on to other constructions as a unit. Other assumptions claim that hogy started its career as a general marker of subordinate clauses or that it may have served as reinforcement of the relative pronoun that may not have been quite differentiated from general pronouns at the time. In addition, another known mechanism of the emergence of compound conjunctions, clause boundary shift/reanalysis, has also been suggested as potentially giving rise to this type of conjunctions. In the present paper, I confront the above possibilities with the picture that emerges from the data and study grammatical, temporal, and register-based prerequisites of the use of these conjunctions. I also seek answers to the issue of why hogyki, attested in written sources between the fifteenth and the late sixteenth centuries, remained infrequent throughout. I conclude that the emergence of hogyki may be primarily related to the spread of hogy ‘that’. Along with the variants ki ~ hogyki, some constructions offered a possibility for a three-way alternation of ki ~ hogy ~ hogyki. The occurrence of hogyki is based on an individual choice of the creator of the text, perhaps coloured by traces of pattern conformity. Due to the last-mentioned factor, the investigation of the presence vs. absence of hogyki may give us evidence concerning general issues of the textual descent/succession of codices.
Keywords: 15th–16th-century Hungarian, history of conjunctions, alternation of conjunctions, the conjunction hogy ‘that’, relative pronoun, codices, translation literature.
The meaning of regularity vs. irregularity in morphology
This paper discusses the interpretation of regularity vs. irregularity and the classification of irregular forms, and seeks answer to the question of what the actual difference is between forms or constructions regarded as “regular” and those regarded as “irregular”, primarily in a morphological perspective. Forms that differ from those regarded as regular are usually not uniformly irregular. All nominal and verbal paradigms have idealised (proto)typical implementations. But paradigms tend to include better and less well formed cells, hence being a category member is a gradual matter: prototypical and non-prototypical items can be arranged along a hypothetical scale between “regular” forms representing a productive pattern at one end of the scale and totally irregular, very idiosyncratic (suppletive) forms at the other end, with other forms exhibiting more or less irregularity located in between.
Keywords: regularity, irregularity, suppletive forms, generation, access, degrees of irregularity, hypothetical scale.
Speech planning and self-monitoring processes in nine-year-old child
Spontaneous speech production involves complex planning processes taking place simultaneously with actual implementation. Due to such simultaneity, spontaneous speech exhibits disfluency phenomena, providing us with an insight into those planning processes on the one hand and the speaker’s self-monitoring mechanisms on the other. In the present paper, we analysed the spontaneous speech of nine-year-old children with respect to disfluency phenomena. We wanted to answer the questions of how children of that age produce spontaneous utterances and how they monitor their own speech. We recorded monologues produced by 18 children (9 girls and 9 boys) on their families, hobbies, and school activities. We selected our subjects randomly from a third-grade class of a Budapest school. All subjects were monolingual, had typical speech development, and none of them had any speech defect or hearing problem. The whole recorded corpus was 67 minutes long and was annotated by Praat 5.3. We analysed the types and rates of occurrence of disfluency phenomena. Along with quantitative analyses, we also submitted the attested disfluency phenomena to qualitative analyses (of types of errors and their temporal properties). The results show that nine-year-olds’ utterances and the surface disfluency phenomena they contain are similar to those of adult speakers, even though some processes of speech planning and self-correction still exhibit age-specific features.
Keywords: spontaneous speech, disfluency phenomena, children’s speech, error types
Reference points, structures, and chains in spatial semantic construct
This paper discusses the interpretation of the initial imagery typically found in Hungarian folk songs in a novel perspective, in the framework of cognitive linguistics. In spatial semantic constructions, objects are characteristically related to one another in terms of cognitive reference points (CRP) and their constructions, having a metaphorical potential of their own. The study of reference points shows that there are strong CRPs whose effects are permanent, such as the speaker’s ego. The dichotomised character of reference points makes it possible to present the main topic of love songs, the relationship between man and woman, in a number of ways. A chain-like sequence of reference points represents a PHYSICAL PATH on the one hand and, metaphorically, some MENTAL JOURNEY or process on the other. Furthermore, there are constructions that are built around some strong reference points or target objects. The loneliness of ego as appearing in the focus of attention is metaphorically expressed by a lack of real spatial reference points: the brokenness or mosaic-like character of the physical space surrounding the ego represents the socially or emotionally disintegrating unity of the living space of the central entity at the same time.
Keywords: reference point, spatial semantics, cognitive linguistics, folk song, folk poetry
Szó- és szólásmagyarázatok