Early 20th-century Neogrammarians and language change
In the present paper, I have attempted to provide a comprehensive analysis of the two-faced character of Neogrammarian ideas, i.e., one based on the axioms, to achieve more than just further elaboration on historiographic details. The inherent theoretical and methodological dualism of the historical linguistic school is discussed in a complex way, with proper respect to the underlying causes, in order to find new perspectives for a more powerful model of linguistic change.
I will put forward the idea of a network model which does not ignore the workings of analogy in the description of language change, but rather presumes that analogy is the underlying force of all processes involved. By this system it is already possible to interpret the background of linguistic mechanisms, and also they correspond to an S-curve, i.e., the general logistic function of language change.
Keywords: Neogrammarians, language change, sound law, analogy, etymology
A nyelvtudomány műhelyéből
German immigration to Southern Transdanubia: its ethnographic and linguistic traces in geographical names I–IV.
1. The author relied on published sources on geographical names of Baranya, Somogy and Tolna Counties in his investigations. In the introductory section of the paper, he surveys the history of German immigration to Hungary following the dislodgement of the Turks. The first part of the paper focuses on the presentation of various popular traditions involving German place names. As the author managed to collect numerous data concerning the German communities’ awareness of their provenance, their memories of the Turkish rule, their folk customs, beliefs and legends, explanations of place names and names of settlements, as well as certain religious symbols, these data are presented, organised in subcategories, in a separate section of the paper.
With respect to each of these areas, few data of folkloristic interest can be found in the material on geographical names of Somogy and Tolna Counties, whereas accessible traditions associated with onomastic data from Baranya County are far more numerous. It is notable that the population coming from the Fulda area has preserved a rich array of folk traditions, the traces of which can be found in the area between Mohács and Pécs in such large numbers that is unparalleled in place names of other parts of Southern Transdanubia.
2. The second part of the paper is devoted to a linguistically-oriented study of geographical names of those three counties. The immigration of Germans to Hungary resulted in their having to create place names in their new territories. The names borrowed from Hungarian became loan names, while wherever they were able to interpret the names of areas in and around the given settlement to some extent, they created calque names. In some cases, places were also named in their mother tongue based on different motives, resulting in parallel or double names. The author counted and summarised settlements having mono- vs. multilingual place names in Baranya, Somogy, and Tolna Counties. Sporadically, we can find settlements with place names in four or even five languages.
Germans living in Hungary preserved a number of archaic features of their original dialects. In the preservation of those features, the fact that they found themselves in a language isolate situation had a crucial role; and the preserved dialect features found their way into their geographical names, too. Therefore, a substantial part of the county and district collections of names published in this country could be profitably used by investigations in German dialectology and historical linguistics. Such a use of those volumes of place names, due to the large number of data, could yield new results in the analysis of phonological (less often, morphological) features. The author thinks that, with respect to the word stock, the most profitably investigable items would be dialect words proper that had been present in the original dialects and were preserved after immigration in place names of Hungarian areas or settlements.
The use of volumes of place names containing valuable material might be expedient not only in scholarly study but also in forming people’s attachment to their local area, in schoolchildren’s education and mental nurturing. With an ethnographic and linguistic study of place names of Baranya, Somogy and Tolna Counties, in addition to his specific professional aims, the author would have liked to contribute to those larger objectives, too.
Keywords: 1. German immigration, awareness of provenance, memories of Turkish rule (taken over from Hungarians), folk customs, beliefs and legends, explanations of place names and names of settlements, religious symbols
2. Origin of German geographical names, parallel place names, presentation of mono- vs. multilingual names, analysis of some (phonological, morphological, lexical) peculiarities of the Fulda dialect preserved in geographical names, study of place names and names of settlements of Baranya, Somogy, and Tolna Counties
Agreement in twentieth-century plays
Endre Rácz, the eminent grammarian, an outstanding researcher of the issue of grammatical agreement, would have been 90 in 2012. This paper pays tribute to his memory. – The agreement literature has paid little attention so far to language use in dramatic works. The author tries to alleviate that lack in the present paper. His study is based on a corpus of 43 plays, one by each of 43 twentiethcentury Hungarian playwrights; the length of the corpus is 4 million characters. The analysis encompasses the whole text of the plays, that is, it includes the stage instructions as well as the characters’ lines. The paper deals with the following issues: person and number agreement between the predicate and single/multiple subjects; definiteness agreement between the verb and its direct object; use of number on nouns after quantifiers and similar modifiers. These agreement phenomena are illustrated by plenty of examples. The proportions of these types of agreement characteristic of drama as a text type are established, with special regard to playwrights’ individual habits of language use, too. Given that the corpus includes plays coming from nearly eight decades, it also makes it possible to explore certain diachronic changes in the use of agreement.
Keywords: drama corpus, formal agreement, semantic agreement, locality, person translucence
Forms and functions of filled pauses in teenagers' spontaneous speech
Our continuous speech is not fluent: it is interrupted by various phenomena like filled or silent pauses, or various types of slips of the tongue. These phenomena can occur in several parts of spontaneous speech production, both in speech planning and in articulation processes, albeit in different degrees, forms, and functions. As no experimentally supported information regarding the frequency distribution, articulated forms and function of filled pauses occurring in teenagers’ spontaneous speech is available to date, our research focuses on the analysis of these. The speech of teenagers was recorded in a digital form, and the Praat system and a statistical program (SPSS, version 10.00) were used for the analysis of hesitation phenomena. In this paper, we present the data obtained and, on the basis of our results, both linguistic and pedagogical consequences are emphasized.
Keywords: hesitation phenomena, filled pause, silent pause, the function of filled pauses, the implementation of filled pauses
Szó- és szólásmagyarázatok
A Nyelvőr hírei