Translation difficulties in phraseological realia involving proper names
Idiomaticity is far from being a peripheral phenomenon of languages and language learning. It is language itself, its vital element, and the key to good command of a language. Communication across languages and cultures is often made difficult by the fact that, along with linguistic and cultural universals or archetypes, there are significant differences as well, ones that are reflected in people’s linguistic world views. Such linguistic and cultural distance can be especially well investigated in comparing culturally loaded phraseological units and realia of two or several languages. The present paper analyses some Hungarian, French, German, and Spanish phrasemes in an intercultural approach involving a certain type of frequently occurring realia: a proper name.
Keywords: phraseology, realia, intercultural analysis
Linguistic interpretations of the phenomenon of subjectification
This paper discusses the category of subjectification, a category often referred to, but used in a variety of senses, in cognitive linguistics. It looks at a number of approaches within functional cognitive linguistics and gives an interpretation of subjectification that is not independent of the way of construal but is more plausible. The operation of subjectification is taken to be the putting into operation of a speaker-oriented conceptual domain in the discourse, meaning that the result of a mental activity whose subject is identical to the person who produces the utterance becomes observable in the referential scene.
Looking more closely at one attitude-like type of subjectification, the linguistic marking of speaker-related processes of inference, the author makes a few observations concerning the linguistic representation of that operation. Finally, in harmony with the chosen interpretation of subjectification, she discusses types of processes of grammaticalization that can be seen as related to that phenomenon.
Keywords: subjectification, intersubjectivity, construal, grammaticalization, attitude
Nyelv és stílus
Bartókiana: the Temesi hypertext (Ferenc Temesi: Bartók)
Ferenc Temesi’s latest novel, once again, is a hard row to hoe for both professional and non-professional readers. Tamás Tarján (2012) goes as far as dubbing it Bartókiana. For a linguist, the spiritual challenge primarily lies in the novel’s formal, structural, semiotic properties (networking). A better and more conscious recognition, comprehension and presentation of these may definitely facilitate the novel’s reception. The aim of this paper is to explore the networks of Temesi’s text, with special emphasis on the fact that Temesi’s novels carry, in addition to some properties of the postmodern novel, linguistic features (e.g. hypertextuality) of the world wide web that fit the philosophy of the postmodern era. In the second half of the paper, I offer some points concerning the reader’s experience. This analysis is a sequel to some earlier papers on Temesi (cf. e.g. Balázs 1989, 1997, 1998).
Keywords: hypertext, networking, text semiotics, structure of text, narration, Ferenc Temesi, Bartók
Narrative and perspective structure in a text version of The Man with the Golden Touch
In 2008, along with several other literary classics, PetePite Publishing House published an abridged and rewritten version of Mór Jókai’s The Man with the Golden Touch. The modernised version was advertised as one that was able to bring classical literature closer to a teenage audience, without changing its essence. The question may arise what features make a work of fiction what it is and when we can say that a textual version is essentially identical to the original. This paper looks at that problem from a linguistic angle. From the point of view of cognitive pragmatics, all communication involves a speaker who makes an utterance, and the world model it represents, accessible for the addressee. I had two initial hypotheses: (i) simplification of a text causes serious changes in its narrative structure, and (ii) Jókai’s original text involves a strongly subjectivised, semi-homodiegetic, and semi-omnipotent narrator, a fact that makes a rich array of perspective shifts possible. The new version involves none of these features. The paper analyses narrative differences between the two versions, with special regard to tenses, to direct, indirect, and free indirect speech, as well as the relationships between the narrator and the protagonists. By studying these, we can explore characteristic literary features like irony and the structure of diegesis, and we can determine similarities and differences between the two texts. The rewritten version differs from the original on several counts, including (i) using simple past tense rather than present and narrative past all the way through, (ii) using direct quotations most of the time rather than indirect and free indirect speech, (iii) having an omniscient and desubjectivised narrator, and (iv) lacking perspectivisation altogether. In sum, the new version ignores a number of important factors, and can by no means and in no sense be seen as equivalent to the original text written by Jókai.
Keywords: functional linguistics, cognitive pragmatics, narratology, perspectivisation, fiction, text analysis, subjectivisation
A nyelvtudomány műhelyéből
Turn taking and socio-cultural factors in conversations
The aim of this paper is to introduce the perspective of conversation analysis into a cognitive stylistic study of conversational texts in order to explore the interdependence between interactional properties of conversations and socio-cultural factors of style. The author also intends to make a contribution to the description of text typological properties of conversational texts of diverse genres and diverse degrees of spontaneity. To that end, from among the various conversational properties of spoken interactions, the analysis takes turn taking strategies as a point of departure, given that they are intimately connected with socio-cultural components of the speech situation and behaviour, as well as with the perspective of cognitive text typology.
Keywords: interactional stylistics, conversational behaviour, socio-cultural factors, turn taking strategies
Suffix extraction: The study of a special type of focus extraction
This paper discusses a special case of focus extraction (sentence intertwining). In complex sentences involving three clauses it sometimes happens that the predicate verb or verb phrase of the third clause has an obligatory argument which, however, rather than occurring in the third clause, is extracted and appears as a suffix on the relative pronoun/conjunction of the second clause. This is what we call suffix extraction; the paper introduces characteristic features, subtypes, and conditions of occurrence of this phenomenon. The author offers a scheme in terms of which the operation of this phenomenon can be traced.
Keywords: suffix extraction, focus extraction, complex sentence, relative pronoun/conjunction, argument, argument suffix
The pragmatics of disagreement
To define disagreement is not an easy task. First, this is because it is related to a number of concepts like dispute, oppositional talk, and argument. Second, disagreement can be interpreted in terms of speech act theory, conversation analysis, and theories of politeness. The paper presents the various possibilities of interpretation, and reports on an empirical study on what factors determine the linguistic behaviour of native Hungarian subjects in expressing disagreement. The situations under investigation cover an array of disagreement strategies and their frequency of occurrence and are characterised in terms of the social distance between the interlocutors and the degree of seriousness of disagreement.
Keywords: disagreement, rule of agreement, rule of interdependence, speech act, politeness
Hungarian influence on the spelling of Slovenian in the Mura region
The literary Slovenian of the Mura region was used between the early 18th century and the first half of the 20th century in the region situated in the eastern part of Slovenia, then part of the Kingdom of Hungary. The development of the orthography of literary Slovenian of the Mura region was influenced by the contemporaneous systems of Hungarian spelling. Some vowel graphemes as well as some consonant graphemes reflected the effect of Hungarian orthography. To represent vowels, the long vowel letters of Hungarian spelling á, é, í, ó, ú were adopted. The representation of the phonemes /ø/, /ø:/, /y/, and /y:/ exhibited a mixed pattern until a Hungarian grammar from 1833 settled on the graphemes ö, ő, ü, ű, used in Hungarian ever since. Several graphemes used for consonants were identical to the corresponding Hungarian consonant letters.
Keywords: literary Slovenian of the Mura region, spelling of Mura region Slovenian, Hungarian influence, vowels, consonants
Szó- és szólásmagyarázatok