Egynyelvű szótáraink és a nyelvhasználat. Az Anyanyelvápolók Szövetségének és az MTA Nyelvtudományi Intézetének közös konferenciája
Monolingual dictionaries and language use
Striking changes of word stock that are observable in present-day Hungarian language use raise a number of issues for lexicography. On the one hand, the problem of inclusion in dictionaries has become more emphatic since the number of items moving towards the standard and that of items moving away from it are both on the increase. On the other hand, the range and system of lexical labels or categories has to be adjusted to fit those ongoing changes. The extent and character of changes are clearly shown by new types of dictionaries.
Keywords: lexical changes, lexical labels, types of dictionaries, history of dictionary making, slang
Az előadáshoz kapcsolódó korreferátumok
Comments on monolingual dictionaries and language use
The author attempts to demonstrate by phonological, morphological, and lexical examples that knowledge of historical linguistics is by no means dispensable in compiling monolingual dictionaries, especially in presenting certain specific sets of words and expressions. Next, he comments on stylistic labels in various defining dictionaries. Finally, he points out that the label ‘argot’ should be replaced, in most cases, by the label ‘slang’
Keywords: historical linguistics, stylistic values, stylistic labels, argot, slang.
On specialised dictionaries: Plans for a historical dictionary of early Hungarian medical terms
With reference to Ferenc Pusztai’s talk, the present author points out that specialised dictionaries and glossaries are being published in large numbers these days. The boundaries of such dictionaries are elastic and expanding: first, they are open-ended in the direction of encyclopaedias (partially relevant examples are lists of concepts for school use), and second, in the direction of bilingual dictionaries. Today, an additional type of tool in studying the word stock of specialised fields is online terminological collections. Specialised dictionaries are open-ended in yet another direction: specialised orthographical dictionaries, students’ dictionaries, and even glossaries of university textbooks and scholarly publications are also a kind of specialised dictionaries. All these subtypes would deserve systematic study. In her talk, the author calls attention to the study of the history of terminologies, and sketches plans for a prospective historical dictionary of medical terms.
Keywords: specialised dictionaries, secondary specialised dictionaries, history of terminologies, history of medical terminology
The relationship between language use and lexical representation in a corpus-based dictionary
The Comprehensive Dictionary of Hungarian is what is called a reference dictionary; its normativity can be captured, if at all, in the way its headwords are selected. This paper discusses three issues arising with respect to language use and dictionaries, especially in the case of a descriptive reference dictionary; three issues that are of utmost importance in the conception of CDH, too: that of corpora and corpus-based dictionaries, that of lexicalization and lexemes, and that of the most direct tool of recording language use in a dictionary: its set of lexical labels.
Keywords: corpus, lexical label, lexicalization, normative dictionary, reference dictionary
Assessment of language use: correct vs. incorrect in language counselling
The aim of language counselling is to answer questions that arise in everyday language use, to help people in forming their opinion concerning various issues. This requires the assessment and evaluation of phenomena of language use, based on a well-founded system of assessment.
The most important feature of systems of assessment of language use based on lexical and stylistic evaluation is the criterion of correctness. Historically, this rests on rationalistic scientific categorisation that involuntarily justifies the predominance of a dichotomy of correct vs. incorrect in everyday thinking about language and language use.
Correctness here means conformity with the standard dialect, and in unsophisticated popular approaches to language this results in an identification of a language with its standard variety. Attempts at normativity simplified to oppositions of correct vs. incorrect, good vs. bad may result in stigmatisation and linguistic disadvantages for speakers of non-standard varieties – along with positive social and cultural value components of standardisation, to be sure. Questions addressed to the language counselling service (firstname.lastname@example.org) of the Research Institute for Linguistics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences are a fair indication of such problems.
This paper, taking the viewpoints of both linguistic science and popular linguistics into consideration, discusses the attitude embodied in language cultivation syntheses with a practical point of departure, focusing on the category of correctness.
Keywords: categorisation, dichotomy, correctness, usage assessment, normativity
New results, deficiencies, and tasks of Hungarian lexicography
This paper gives a brief account of dictionary making since the 1960s and of the favourable developments that accompanied the political changes in the early 1990s, including the emergence of new workshops of dictionary publishing. It lists types of monolingual Hungarian dictionaries that are either totally absent or unfinished today: a comprehensive dictionary of Hungarian, a thesaurus of Hungarian, a frequency dictionary, a dictionary of rhymes, a dictionary of collocations, a singlevolume dialect dictionary, and a dictionary of new words.
The paper also contains a checklist of particular tasks: finishing dictionaries that have been started as soon as possible, continual updating of monolingual dictionaries, compiling new specialised dictionaries, detailed exploration of the history of Hungarian dictionary making, extending the training of lexicographers, high-standard reviewing of published dictionaries, compilation of novel text corpora, and organisation of conferences on lexicography in this country. Finally, the author suggests that a Hungarian Institute of Lexicography should be founded where the tasks listed here could be fulfilled in concerted action by a qualified team of experts.
Keywords: Hungarian lexicography, history of dictionary writing, publication of dictionaries, specialised dictionary, criticism of dictionaries, text corpus
Nyelv és stílus
Contingencies and value states of bodies/body parts in the poetic diction of Milán Füst
In Milán Füst’s lyrical poetry, the objective designation of the human body and its parts can be said to occur frequently, due to the fact that social consciousness associates certain properties with the human body or parts of it. The poet is either unable or unwilling to abstract away from these properties, or else he wishes to capitalise on the possibilities yielded by such associated properties. The paper discusses occurrences of test ‘body’, nyak ‘neck’, kéz ‘hand’, and homlok ‘forehead’ in Füst’s poems, their relationships with persons referred to in those poems, and their use for VALUE vs. VALUELESSNESS, on the basis of quantitative and qualitative factors of their contingencies.
Keywords: poetic diction of Milán Füst, names of body parts in poetic language, contingency, value states
How do we perceive style? A study of slang expressions
One of the basic devices of linguistic style is the use of slang expressions. In an informal setting, slang words and expressions may have a variety of stylistic effects, although the style of slang itself is non-polished in general, and sometimes downright rough. Such expressions are increasingly widely used in everyday communication. The informal layer of colloquial speech involves low-level linguistic competence as compared to socially expected norms, although it perfectly matches the expectations of speakers of slang.
In this paper, I explored the extent to which adult and student speakers of present-day Standard Hungarian are able to detect out-of-place slang expressions in a text otherwise observing codified linguistic norms (perception) and replace them by an adequate non-slang expression (production). The linguistic material was based on a brief written answer in a school test containing six slang words. Subjects (fourteen-year-olds, secondary school students, university students, and adults) had to mark these words in a pre-prepared test sheet, and replace each of them by an appropriate standard equivalent.
Perception and replacement results both show that subjects’ age, the type of the slang expression, as well as the locus and manner of its occurrence are dominant factors in both cases. A pedagogical consequence that can be raised is that a task of this sort might be useful in a school entrance procedure to measure children’s skills/abilities required for their further education.
Keywords: style, language variety, stylistic variety, norm, slang, types of slang, perception diagram, correction diagram
A nyelvtudomány műhelyéből
Phraseology as the reflection of human world view
Set phrases encapsulate the world that members of the given community (used to) live in, including their social and political customs that reveal their being part and parcel of the given area of culture and civilization. What is primarily at stake here is social and cultural knowledge characteristic of the given nation, the accomplishments of its civilisation, and its language; in other words, the community’s national-cultural component, including expressive, moral, aesthetic, ideological, pragmatic, and linguistic/ cultural historical aspects, too. It involves phenomena pertaining to the cultural patterns, mentality, tradition, folklore, system of values, and structure of social and political life specific to the culture of the given linguistic community. It further involves what can be called socio-cultural idiomatics. The semantic structure of set phrases reflects the anthropocentric point of view characteristic of the given nation. The majority of metaphors and similes found in set phrases also suggest anthropocentrism. Set phrases show that people not merely acquire knowledge of and experience the world but also assess it in their own particular ways.
Keywords: phraseology, human world view, anthropocentrism, national-cultural component, assessment of the world
The relevance of topics with respect to utterance tokens, utterance types, and sentences
In the present paper I examine the phenomena of topic in a neo-gricean framework (cf. Levinson 1995, 2000) where three layers of meaning are distinguished: first, the layer of utterance tokens, which takes information coming from the actual context into consideration; second, the layer of utterance types, which leaves information coming from the actual context out of consideration, while the categories of the context are taken into account; and third, the layer of sentences, at which level we disregard these contextual categories as well. I study topic at these three levels, and I examine the cases that make it possible to formulate statements about topic at more abstract levels than the level of utterance token. I also study which aspects of topic are relevant at the particular levels.
Keywords: pragmatics, topic, utterance token, utterance type, sentence
Szó- és szólásmagyarázatok
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