“Do you love me?” (John 21:15–16) Linguistic world view and text comprehension
If we consider our spoken or even written utterances and the answers we get to them with meticulous care, we may often be surprised to find that we do not understand one another, or at least not according to our intentions. One telling example of misunderstanding or lack of understanding in our conversations is the dialogue between Jesus and Peter as reported in the Gospel of John (21:15–16). The paper discusses this problem, both communicative and translation-related as it is, in the variegated mental background of the verb szeret ‘love’
Keywords: the Gospel of John, love, ἁγαπᾶν, φιλεῖν, world view, etymology
Nyelv és iskola
An investigation of error phenomena in hand-written texts based on students’ test papers of Hungarian language and literature
In this paper, slips of the pen – written analogues of slips of the tongue – are analyzed by using a Hungarian-language error corpus. We are seeking answers to three principal questions: first, whether the observed distribution (by type and gender) of slips of the tongue can be regarded as valid for slips of the pen, too; second, why some error types occur only in writing (and not in speech); and finally, where the grapho-motoric planning module can be attached to Levelt’s model of speech production, in the case of the Hungarian language. The phonological component of speech production does also function while writing, but its role is modified and not absolute: elisions, anticipations and perseverations of letters can be explained partially by minimal phonation (which is slightly different from loud speech), partially by the possible role of similar letter forms and identical elements of script. By observing the remaining mistakes in the corpus, one can also take a look at the acquisition process of lexical knowledge and the functioning of Ranschburg’s reasoning in practice, too.
Keywords: speech production, written modality, minimal phonation, Ransch-burg’s reasoning, Levelt’s model
A nyelvtudomány műhelyéből
Meta-operators signalling the relation of text-internal equivalence
The text-internal relation indicated by meta-operators like nevezetesen ‘namely’, vagyis ‘that is’, tehát ‘hence’, azt jelenti ‘in the sense’ is none other than the relation of equivalence. This can be “momentary” equivalence in cases where it obtains between two expressions referring to the same designatum in a given situation, or it can be a relation between definiendum and definition. Finally, it can be a pair of names (designations) referring to the same designatum in two different ways.
Keywords: meta-operators, equivalence relation, nevezetesen, vagyis, tehát, azt jelenti
Is a “comprehensive aspect theory” possible?
This paper deals with the question of the possibility of an all-embracing aspect theory. Refuting prevailing views on human language and its category of the aspect as a stable and rational system based on strict and absolute rules, the paper presents arguments in favour of the existence of communication fragments being the fundamental units of language (and aspectual) usage.
Keywords: verbal aspect, aspect theories, aspectual usage
Discourse marker or demonstrative pronoun? – The role of stress in lexical decision
Stress reduction, either as a prerequisite for phonetic reduction or as part of it, is usually discussed in the literature as a symptom of an item becoming a function word (e.g. Hopper and Traugott 2003: 154). Pronouns, especially adverbial demonstrative pronouns, often evolve into pragmatic discourse markers in the various languages. Former studies have explored a novel discourse marking function (referred to as “attention claiming function”), as well as the characteristic positions in utterances, of ilyen ‘such’ and így ‘so’, two items frequently occurring in spontaneous Hungarian speech (Dér 2010, Markó and Dér 2011). With respect to such innovative use of certain pronominal items, several researchers take loss of stress for granted (e.g. Laczkó 2003: 323; Imrényi 2007), a claim for which no empirical confi rmation has been offered so far. The present paper investigates the interrelationships between (suprasegmental) form and (pragmatic) function of the lexemes ilyen ‘such’, így ‘so’, azért ‘therefore’ and akkor ‘then’. Our initial hypothesis was that, in a pronominal use, these lexemes consistently receive phrasal or sentence stress, whereas in their occurrences as discourse markers they are unstressed. To see whether that claim was true, we analysed and compared stress relationships in sentences read out by 10 speakers; the lexemes at hand occurred as pronouns in one sentence, and as discourse markers in other. We studied the effect of stressed/unstressed realisation on lexical decision via perception tests. In the individual cases of demonstrative pronouns vs. discourse markers, correlation between function and stress was found to obtain to an unequal extent. Our acoustic analysis has confi rmed that it is not the presence vs. absence of stress as an objective factor that helps the speech comprehension system to decide whether the given lexeme is a pronoun or a discourse marker; rather, it is determined by a host of other (semantic, syntactic, and pragmatic) characteristics. It can be assumed that the listener perceives a given item as stressed or unstressed on the basis of its pronominal/discourse marking role, independently ascertained due to other factors, and this is what accounts for the correlation that can be attested between the two variables.
Keywords: grammaticalisation, discourse marker, demonstrative pronoun, the role of stress in lexical decision
A phonological study of Hungarian rhyme in functional cognitive approach
This study approaches the category of Hungarian rhyme as a functional cognitive phonological category. From this point of view rhyme is – as other cognitive phonological categories – a mental representation, and it has its members arranging around a prototype. The unifi ed rhyme category includes both the pure rhyme and the assonance. The description is based on the results of the research on Hebrew rhyme: the prototype of the Hungarian rhyme category (the pure rhyme) can be characterised with the rhyme centrality principle (as in the case of Hebrew), and the so called assonance-variants are the less central members of the category. The descripiton of the category’s internal organization relies on the system of assonance demonstrated in details by Arany János. The main conclusion of the study is that the prototype-based categorization is more signifi cant factor in the organization of the category of Hungarian rhyme than the schema-based categorization. The other purpose of the study is modeling the schematic phonological structure of Hungarian rhyme with the terms phonological autonomy, dependence and construal. The schematic phonological structure of rhyme can explainedin a dynamic process of phonological construal, through elaborating the schematic substructure of rhyme at several levels of A/D alignment.
Keywords: rhyme, assonance, cognitive phonology, prototype, schema, categorization, rhyme centrality principle, autonomy/dependence alignment
Szó- és szólásmagyarázatok
A Nyelvőr hírei