The auxiliary + infinitive construction in Hungarian
The paper outlines the semantics of the Hungarian auxiliary + infinitive structure in the cognitive linguistic framework of R. Langacker and B. Heine. The Hungarian auxiliary + infinitive structure is one way to construe a process in, a composite semantic structure that represents the semantic functions of the finite verb in a clause, though in a morphosyntactically more complex and semantically more explicit way. The Hungarian auxiliary profiles (future) tense or modality, and the abstracted temporal relation, a process, while the infinitive comprises most of the semantic content of the whole event structure. Trajector and landmark as schematic participants are represented as shared in the two components. This construction is similar to the finite verb, though event structure, eventhood and schematic participants are not always elaborated to the degree they are in the case of a finite verb. Tense is denoted in a restricted way, and the use of modal auxiliaries is related to force dynamic relations.
Keywords: auxiliary, infinitive, composite structure, linguistic unit, process, schematicity, sequential and summary scanning
The spelling of derivatives in -ás/-és of adverbial modifier plus verbal head combinations
The paper studies the spelling of -ás/-és forms of set phrases with a verbal head. This is made necessary by the fact that a long list of exceptions appended to §126 of the Rules of Hungarian Orthography makes the validity of that paragraph doubtful. Furthermore, prior to the empirical investigation, it was also debatable whether those exceptions are in fact forms that occur frequently in everyday spelling practice or whether they just get inherited down the tradition of spelling codification from rulebook to rulebook, from dictionary to dictionary. The study reported here gives unambiguous answers to the above dilemmas. Since in some cases the derivatives of traditionally spelt phrasemes occurred either infrequently or practically not at all in the corpora we have investigated, and the contexts also exhibit a number of irregular properties, the author thinks that a rethinking of §126 is by all means justified.
Keywords: spelling of compounds, set phrases with a verbal head, the derivational suffix – ás/ -és, tradition, representative corpus (the Hungarian National Corpus), frequency of spelling patterns, investigation of contexts of spelling patterns
Nyelv és stílus
Informativity patterns in a poetic text
Textuality is based on coherence in a poetic text (as well as in any text); and coherence may be contributed to by metaphors. The degree of informativity of metaphors is diverse, though. The study of informativity relationships in a poem by Milán Füst supports the claim that lyrical texts have high entropy values.
Keywords: coherence, metaphor, probability of occurrence, infomativity, the informativity of a metaphor, entropy, level of news value, theme, rheme, grammar, semantics, pragmatics
The role of the BATTLE metaphor in the political parlance of the 1950s
The paper surveys alternative ways of research on political language use. Taking sides with linguistics-based, quantitative alternatives, the author analyses the role of metaphors in political propaganda. Choice of metaphors is an important ingredient of power discourse, especially in periods of dictatorship. Using results of cognitive linguistic approaches, the author presents examples from the Hungarian press of the mid-twentieth century and shows how metaphors, constituting the culmination of political communication, were projected to the various areas of life, how they tried to affect people's thinking. The sense networks of the editorials analysed emphasise the negative participant of the BATTLE metaphor, the attacker, forcing opponents of the partystate system into that role. The study of metaphor use, therefore, supports the claim that the metaphor was selected consciously, with pragmatic factors in mind. Its textual function was to establish an emotional link between political power groups (as opposed to dissidents) and the consumers of political propaganda.
Keywords: political parlance, usage in the media, metaphor, cognitive linguistics, history of press
Nyelv és iskola
Temporal factors in the spontaneous speech of secondary school pupils
Previous studies on speech tempo in Hungarian have revealed that it is getting faster in general and that it is an age group related variable, too. In this paper, we have studied the speech rate and articulation rate of secondary school pupils, a group of speakers generally assumed to speak fast. We tried to find out what relationship obtains between the tempo and quality of their speech and how all that relates to comprehensibility.
Articulation rate and speech rate values, as well as the types, number, and length of utterance-internal (silent and filled) pauses were established for two age groups (15 and 18-yearolds). We have collected and classified the phenomena characterising their articulation, looked at their frequency of occurrence, and analysed the pronunciation variants arising due to fast tempo. Our results have confirmed the effect of age on tempo in this narrower age range, too. The faster speech of older pupils cooccurred with significant shortening of their silent pauses. Increasing speech tempo resulted in sound omissions, syllable omissions and various sound replacements, as well as in massive shortening of vowel durations. Articulatory inaccuracies due to fast tempo and the resulting variant pronunciations primarily occurred in content words, therefore they can lead to difficulties in comprehension and to communication deficits.
Keywords: articulation rate, speech rate, silent pause, filled pause, duration of pauses, quality of speech, articulatory characteristics, pronunciation variant
A nyelvtudomány műhelyéből
Titles as minimal meta-texts
Titles may have three different functions. The first one is the nominative function, providing the name of a text. The second one is the descriptive function, referring to the content of the text, hence covering the information contained in the text: presenting meta-information. The third function is a pragmatic one, trying to make a persuasive effect on the receiver. A good title is short, attracts attention, affects emotions, and transmits the content of the text. Thus, titles are minimal meta-texts; but they are also advertisements of the text, a means to catch the reader's eye. Titles of newspaper articles also reveal strategies that are characteristic of the various papers, the various editorial staffs.
Keywords: title, structure, meta-information, functions
Reflections on István Pete's article 'On the nature of comparison'
The author – after expressing his thanks to István Pete for the latter's thorough and many-sided assessment of his book (cf. Magyar Nyelv.r 133: 295–310) – outlines his views that differ from Pete's standpoint concerning some questions raised there (the relation between gradation and measuring, gradable and ungradable words). He points out the interrelations between natural phenomena and human mental activity as well as those between gradation, measuring and clarification.
Keywords: comparison, comparative gradation, non-comparative gradation, adverb of degree
The types of clausal complements in Hungarian
The aim of this paper is to examine the distribution of the various types of clausal complements in Hungarian. I argue that we can predict the syntactic type of the clausal complement of a predicate on the basis of two semantic criteria: world dependency and subject dependency between the matrix and the complement. To prove this, I investigate indicative, subjunctive and infinitive complements, and, in this context, I touch on the issue of obviation as well. The conclusions are the following:
1. If a complement introduces an independent world and it has an independent subject, it will be an indicative clausal complement.
2. If a complement introduces a dependent world and it has an independent subject, it will be a subjunctive clausal complement.
3. If a complement introduces a dependent world and it has a dependent subject, it will be an infinitive clausal complement.
Predicates that do not have a subject can pattern either with type 2 or with type 3, i.e., they can be realized either as subjunctive clausal complements or as infinitive clausal complements (taking an overt subject and agreeing with it).
Keywords:complex sentence, clausal complement, indicative clause, subjunctive clause, infinitival phrase involving no personal suffix, infinitival phrase involving a personal suffix, situation dependence, controlled subject, obviation
Szó- és szólásmagyarázatok