The Linguistic Image of the Notion of Lie in Hungarian
The notion of lie is expressed in numerous metaphors and attributive constructions in Hungarian. This paper presents the most characteristic constructions and analyses them partly on the basis of texts of fiction but mainly on the basis of colloquial data taken from the National Text Corpus.
The terminology of Wellness
The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the appearance and development of the Hungarian terminology of wellness, a young discipline which has become known and gained ground in Hungary at a remarkably fast pace. The appearance of wellness includes the spread of a specific vocabulary, full of international lemmata, the foundation of training centres for wellness specialists, and the appearance of the first wellness reference works. The fast development of wellness exemplifies and illustrates the current problems in Hungarian terminology in general.
The new role of sports in people's lifestyle choices, interpersonal relationships, and economic progress is also profoundly reflected in language use. The new circumstances with special focus on healthier lifestyle choices and the maintenance of the individual!s physical and mental health have resulted in the appearance of wellness as a new and complex discipline.
Wellness, as a physical activity, is connected to sports in many ways. The swift integration of an array of various activities geared at lifestyle changes and choices have resulted in the appearance of new institutions with a focus on the integration of sports, recreation, healthy lifestyle choices, and therapeutic methods. Special centres for recreation, spa, tourism, sports, and rehabilitation have been established, which fulfil their mission with the help of specially trained staff, taking local resources into consideration. This multidisciplinary and complex activity is referred to under the umbrella term wellness world wide.
Kell mennem, kell menjek?
The author claims that constructions of the type kell menjek "I have to go" have been around for quite some time at a dialectal level, especially in Transylvanian speech. In Standard Hungarian (of Hungary) it was first introduced on a large scale by Transylvanian refugees after the first world war, and it further gained ground in the early 1990s due to mass immigration from Transylvania. According to the data collected by the author, this construction is more and more widespread in the language of the media, whereas in spontaneous speech it only occurs sporadically (as a survey made by the author shows). It is also present in the language of fiction. Its use was labelled as "heavily dialectal" by several linguists earlier on, but today it should not be frowned upon any more.
Nyelv és stílus
Objectifying and Allegorizing Metaphors in László Cholnoky's Short Novels
László Cholnoky (1879–1929) was a talented prosaist belonging to the first generation of the journal Nyugat [The West]. His oeuvre fell into oblivion for some time, but recently it has started commanding renewed interest. This paper is a first attempt in the literature at introducing and characterizing Cholnoky's style.
One of the main traits of Cholnoky's style is concretization of abstract mental processes or contents of consciousness. When the imagery of these concretizing metaphors involves an inanimate thing, property or event, we can speak of objectification; if it involves an animate (human) being, property or action, we have to do with personification or, in more elaborate cases, with allegorization.
The author analyzes examples taken from Cholnoky's three best-written short novels, 'St. Bertalan's night' (1916), 'Prikk's way to heaven' (1917), and 'Thomas' (1918). In conclusion, the paper deals with the novelist's position within the history of Hungarian styles. Cholnoky's style is a clear example of the developmental trend from secession via symbolism to surrealism. The author also raises the possibility of a parallel between László Cholnoky's and Attila József's world and style.
Nép és nyelv
SMS Folklore – the Linguistic Image of Minimalistic Folklore
The author previously published three papers in this journal concerning the world of SMS: on election SMSs (2003), on SMS as electronic graffiti (2004), and on SMS news (2005). In the present, concluding paper of the series, the folklore-type characteristics of SMS messages are investigated, using methods of folkloristics, textology, and anthropological linguistics. The theoretical point of departure is that folklore phenomena do exist irrespective of historical period or social layer. This is the basis of present-day folklore (also known as post-folklore) or, as it is also referred to in this paper: e-folklore, minimalistic folklore, computer folklore, or SMS folklore. Folklore- type characteristics of the techno-cultural world are described in terms of the paradigms of tradition vs. innovation, spoken vs. written communication (mediality), international vs. national aspects, etc. Within e-folklore, the author's special interest lies in SMS folklore. The most typical text types of SMS folklore are discussed in the following thematic order: festive messages, courtship/ love, chain letters (forwarded letters), funny/tricky/misleading texts, maxims.
After a folkloristic/linguistic analysis of the corpus, the author states that SMS as a means of social communication offers human relationships, in particular, those formed by folklore messages, not only a novel medium but also a novel quality. It is not simply the case that traditional Christmas, Easter etc. postcards undergo a shift of medium and can be sent as SMS messages from now on. Three features of that novel quality are as follows: (a) extension of the human brain, of folklore memory (SMS storage, internet data bases), (b) automation of contacts: mobile phones and SMS make keeping in touch easy, (c) the psychology of contacts: SMS psychologically alleviates a number of types of inhibition; in other words, messages can be sent by SMS practically uninhibited.
It is to be emphasized that although SMS folklore does exhibit anthropological, 'eternally human' characteristics in may ways, it also shows particular features of what is known as postfolklore rather than traditional folklore, due to changes in the general circumstances.
Nyelv és iskola
The Theory and Practice of Text Comprehension Development
In the first part of the paper, the author discusses the changes that the notion of 'reading' has undergone in the past few decades, with special regard to the way 'literacy' is understood in the PISA surveys; then, she gives an overview of the most important components and factors of reading skills on the basis of the models of László Tóth, József Nagy, and Ferenc Lénárd. She also reviews – referring to studies published in other countries, mainly in the United States – the most important prerequisites of the development of text comprehension, touching upon characteristics of the Hungarian situation with respect to some factors. She writes more in detail about reading comprehension strategies and possible ways of teaching them, given that this is a fairly little known area in this country, even though in the States it has been a research topic for the past thirty years or more. The final part of the paper – making no claim for completeness – includes text comprehension exercises and techniques whose regular use may advance a successful development of children's comprehension skills, their turning into reasoning and strategic readers, active and reflective learners.
A nyelvtudomány műhelyéből
On the Interrelations of Speech Perception Processes in Children
Children's speech perception strategies, together with speech production, start developing from the very beginning of language acquisition. In the case of children exhibiting usual (normal) qualitative and quantitative changes, no dissociation is assumed between speaking and speech processing.
However, observational data show that children's speech production may go on working properly for quite some time even if there is some hidden impairment in their speech processing abilities. This usually leads to learning difficulties and restricted cognitive operations. Little is known, furthermore, about the expected age-bound working of speech processing performance or indeed about the line of development and its characteristics. In a series of experiments, the authors have sought answers to a number of questions: (i) What level do the speech perception and comprehension processes under scrutiny reach between ages 4 and 9? (ii) What interrelationships do they exhibit? (iii) Exactly how can the fact of development be pinpointed? Test results of a total of 600 children (altogether over fifty thousand data) have been analysed with respect to speech perception and speech comprehension processes. The results have confirmed a particular cooperation among the individual perceptual processes: development can be accounted for in terms of a decrease of interconnections among various types of processing. The older the child is, the mutual independence of perceptual processes is the more pronounced, and that is what underlies the proper functioning of the whole mechanism.
On the Expressive Metatextual Operators "Aha", "Yes", "What?" and Those Indicating the End of a Reply
In spontaneous speech, metatextual units very often refer to textual operations (e.g., to put it simply = to express sg in a simpler form), but they may also serve to indicate certain mental processes going on during text creation, e.g., aha = some piece of information has occurred to the speaker while speaking (Én ezt megcsináltam / aha és odaadtam Pistának "I made it / oh yes, and gave it to Steve"); igen "yes" = I have made the right choice (Figyelj! Tudod, hogy mar egy hónapja" / igen, már egy hónapja / nem dohányzom "Listen, d'you know, it's been a month / yeah, a month / that I gave up smoking"). The metatextual operator mi? complements the mosaic of functions of the question word mi? "what?" and may exclusively occur in interrogative contexts. Its first function is to indicate that a question is due to begin in a moment. In this sense, mi? is an anticipation of a question, a 'proto-question', e.g., Ez milyen színű? Mi? 'What colour is this? Eh?'. The operator mi? may also signal a question that suggests surprise: Mi? Ő újra ideköltözött? "What? She has moved back here?".
Zsigmond Simonyi and József Pápay
The scholarly merits of Zsigmond Simonyi, numerous as they were, were also enhanced by his activity in supporting students. One of his students was József Pápay, whose manuscript posthuma have been preserved in the Library of the Calvinist College in Debrecen. Manuscript sources proving the fellowship of master and student are discussed in the present paper. In letters and diaries, there are plenty of interesting data confirming the role Simonyi had played in the fact that his student proposed an analysis of Reguly's Ostyak collection. Pál Gyulai and Zsigmond Simonyi recommended Pápay to the third Zichy expedition. Simonyi also provided for the copying of Reguly's four heroics and transporting them to Siberia. He helped Pápay in his efforts to find work and publish articles after returning home. The paper is concluded by an obituary of Simonyi which was also found among the Pápay manuscripts.
Szó- és szólásmagyarázatok
A Nyelvőr hírei