The linguistic image of the concept of mother in Hungarian
The concept mother has a comparatively wide, multi-profile cognitive base in Hungarian that is appropriately reflected in its internal taxonomy, too. That base is made up by several domains. For instance, in the domain of family, two profiles are distinguished: those of parent and wife. (A metaphorical extension of human family relations is the parent-female profile.) The next domain of the cognitive base is that of time, within which the lexeme mother accesses the profile of age; as well as the domains of sacrum and value. The linguistic image sketched in this paper transmits not only the traditionally fixed cultural pattern but it also takes present-day social realia into consideration as well.
The Concise Dictionary of Language Cultivation
This paper is a review and recommendation of The Concise Dictionary of Language Cultivation, edited by László Grétsy and Gábor Kemény, published by Tinta Könyvkiadó, Budapest, 2005. The author formulates his general views on mother tongue, language cultivation, and dictionaries of language cultivation. He mentions entries of the present dictionary that he finds impeccable, but also ones that he thinks are to be extended, formulated more clearly, corrected, or modified in their content. Also, he brings up certain phenomena that the dictionary fails to discuss.
Nyelv és stílus
The use of evocatives as a post-modern device
In portraying their characters, writers often make use of the possibility offered by certain names having a recognizable meaning or a sound shape that evokes particular emotions or dispositions. Such names are generally called evocatives or, using Vilmos Tolnai’s term, telling names. With respect to such names, Miklós Kovalovszky claims that they highlight a single main feature but, due to their impoverished contents, they are incapable of providing a nuanced characterisation. They mostly have an ironical effect, therefore they occur primarily in comic genres; as a stylistic device, evocatives have exhausted their possibilities by now. – Telling names, indeed, have retreated into comic genres (today, they have a role primarily in parodies), the narrowing of their domain of use, however, resulted in a kind of functional renewal. Despite earlier views that play down their value, they have great hidden potentials. In the past decade, that recognition has been signalled by a tendency that pop groups, newspapers, and catering establishments have been given playful or pun-based names to an increasing extent, due to which circumstance telling names may reassume a more significant role in works of fiction in the near future.
Nép és nyelv
Bak ‘buck’ and kecske ‘goat’ in Hungarian plant names
Analytic metaphors based on animal names are frequent in the terminology of botany. The reverse case also occurs in a number of instances: animal names are derived from plant names as in káposztalepke ‘cabbage-butterfly’, fapoloska ‘plant bug’, szőlőtetű ‘vine louse’, almalégy ‘apple maggot’, szilvamoly ‘plum piercer’, gabonamoly ‘grain moth’, etc. From among zoomorphic terms, the author has collected those in bak- and kecske-, and discusses their word history and word geography. These terms are partly internal developments, compounds, and partly entered Hungarian as loan translations. They are shape-based names, referring to the form or smell of plants or parts of plants. They include several polysemantic expressions in which the relationship between individual, immediately related meanings is metaphorical. The motivations are mainly reconstructible. There is a similarity in shape between (parts of) the animals involved and the stalk, root, leaf or flower whose name is borrowed for them.
A nyelvtudomány műhelyéből
The interpretation of definite object conjugation in Hungarian
In Hungarian, there are two conjugational paradigms, known variously as subject vs. object conjugation, indefinite vs. definite conjugation, or common vs. definite conjugation. In conformity with the principle of nomen est omen, the author proposes the terms subject conjugation (intransitive verbs, as well as transitive verbs without a direct object or with an indefinite direct object or else with a first or second person personal pronoun for direct object have inflectional forms varying in accordance with the number and person of their subject) and definite object conjugation (transitive verbs with a definite direct object, including third person personal pronouns, have inflectional forms varying in accordance with the number and person of their subject but also referring to the third-person character and definiteness of the direct object). Compare: Olvasok egy könyvet ‘I am reading a book’ vs. Olvasom a könyvet ‘I am reading the book’.
A comparative analysis of the early and late bilingual mental lexicons
The structure and the construction of the bilingual mental lexicon are here the focus of attention. The paper explores the issue of whether the bilingual mental lexicon works in the same way as the monolingual lexicon, whether there are differences between the storage systems of the two sets of lexemes. Based on an Hungarian word association test carried out among 90 bilinguals, Navracsics Judit: A korai és a késıi kétnyelvő mentális lexikon rendezettségének... 335 of whom 50 are early bilinguals and 40 late bilinguals, the main goal of the present paper is to find some evidence concerning the storage hypothesis. Bilinguals have turned out to have one common semantic representation but two sets of words which are stored in one common lexicon. There are significant differences in the construction of the mental lexicon according to the age of becoming bilingual. Early bilinguals are more likely to store the information in a paradigmatic way whereas late bilinguals tend to store more syntagmatic relations.
When is the possessor an argument?
This paper tries to find out in which cases the possessive attribute is to be taken as an (obligatory) argument of its head noun. Determining what counts as an optional argument in this case is especially troublesome. Possessor arguments can be seen in various perspectives, concern- ing different word classes in each case. The author first discusses characteristics of semantic gov- ernment and classifies relevant items in terms of their major properties. Synonymy with adverbial arguments is another criterion of determining possessor arguments. In the course of exploring syn- tactic government, the author comes to the conclusion that subject-based possessors are not obliga- tory lexical arguments with respect to nouns in -ás/-és or -ság/-ség; and even possessive attributes derived from obligatory direct objects, traditionally taken to be lexical arguments, need not obliga- torily occur in a possessor role. However, for that lack of overt occurrence to apply, certain syntac- tic criteria have to be met. Finally, cases of morphological government are discussed. The items belonging here are primarily classified in terms of formal criteria. The author argues that it is not the case that all word forms involving a third-person singular possessive suffix have to cooccur with a possessor argument, that is, government and agreement have to be distinguished.
Exclamations in Middle Hungarian
This paper analyses exclamatory sentences from the Middle Hungarian period, primarily in terms of their grammatical features. Among articulated exclamations, the author distinguishes those that determine their basic modal value with an interjection, an emphatic particle or an intensifying pronoun, respectively. She also discusses unarticulated exclamations in detail and adds that for some sentences whose exclamatory modality is not made unambiguous by grammatical features, it can be made probable by semantic ones. The investigation being performed on a closed corpus, it also allows for highlighting genre-specific characteristics within the various types of sources.
Szó- és szólásmagyarázatok