Dominance and affability in the Kulcsár interrogation
In one of the most important, and politically far-reaching, recent embezzlement cases in Hungary, the video recording of an interrogation at the prosecutor’s office has become public. This paper analyses the reflection of dominance and control in the recorded conversation, as well as the role structure, tone and style of the interrogation, on the basis of various linguistic phenomena. The regulation of turn taking, initiatives and responses, thematic control, backchannel channel signals and stylistic phenomena are all analysed and it turns out that, in the present case, control was throughout in the hands of the prosecution and that the interrogation was directed strenuously, with clear dominance and strong control. However, the interrogators’ dominant role and strict thematic and strategic control was not coupled with a stiff and rigid style: the tone of the interrogation, apart from a number of more formal portions, was often relaxed, and sometimes casual. This shows in general that the style and control structure of a particular speech event are two separate planes that may significantly differ from one another.
Spoken and/or written language
The traditional dichotomy between spoken vs. written language cannot be unambiguously applied in certain cases. If a written text is read out aloud, it is no longer perceived via visual signals. If a conversation is (literally) recorded in writing, does it become a piece of written language? The number of doubtful cases is increased by chat communication that appears to be intermediate between spoken and written language use. Formally, it is a case of written communication, yet in terms of its function, chat takes sides with spoken utterances. The communicator does not see or hear her communicative partner; but there is practically no time lag between sending and receiving the message, unlike in usual forms of written communication. The novelty of this genre, then, is that it is interactive, synchronous and written at the same time; its unusual character resides in the immediacy of visual communication. In order to come closer to a solution, the author reviews the characteristics of Koch and Oesterreicher’s poles of PROXIMITY vs. DISTANCE, as well as those of a new system in which the notions of ‘written’ and ‘spoken’ are complemented by ‘conceptional’ and ‘medial’. Finally, the various genres of internet communication (such as e-mail, chat, forum, e-card, ICQ, sms) are classified according to the new criteria proposed.
The semantics and pragmatics of predicative past participles
The predicative use of past participles can be traced back to several, sometimes mutually independent, reasons. Earlier on, foreign patterns used to be followed via loan translations, but this source is less dominant today. Rather, syntactic synonymy that may be seen as necessary from a practical point of view comes into being whereby predicative past participles replace -va/-ve plus copula constructions, as well as finite verbs used with impersonal subjects or, less frequently, participles in -ható/-hetı or passive verb forms. In the present case, the characteristics of structural synonymy identified by Károly (1970: 138), identical sentence constituent function (predicate) but diverse part-of-speech affiliations (finite verbs, non-finite verb forms), are well attested. Genreand dialect-specificity cannot be left out of consideration, either: official language use (because of impersonality) and descriptive genres of scientific discourse (due to the analogy of predicative adjectives) make good use of this construction.
A nyelvtudomány műhelyéből
The linguistic, scientific and cultural images of the world as components of a second reality
The general image of the world of which the linguistic image of the world constitutes an integral part is a collective construct of the given communicational community, representing a second reality in addition to the first (objective, physical) reality. This means that the first reality serves as a basis for the creation of the second that is manifested in various semiotic phenomena, including linguistic texts, messages, etc. In that sense, the second reality is a meta-image of the first, given that it has been created by humans according to their world view and that it never reflects an isomorphic and full image of the first reality.
Incorrect representation of segmental sequences in speech production
Speech production involves a series of processes that operate covertly and cannot be directly accessed. Only their output, speech itself, can be analysed. The collection and investigation of instances of disfluency is an important area of psycholinguistic research since such disharmonic phenomena may yield information concerning the operations that take place in the background: getting to know the causes and courses of speakers committing errors brings us closer to understanding the characteristics of normal processes. In the present study, the authors analyse 1760 segmentallevel errors (379 perseverations, 594 anticipations, 401 metatheses, and 386 simple slips of the tongue) and try to find out which level of speech planning is responsible for faulty implementation is each case.
This paper represents a section of a neglected area of onomatology: the research of names given to animals. It discusses special manners of animal naming, focussing on name giving in horse-breeding establishments. The general principles of horse name giving in Hungary are made clear first; then, the naming habits of Somogysárd, a settlement in Southern Hungary are discussed in detail. From among her investigations of the body of names she collected, the author highlights a novel analysis of name semantics by way of which she circumscribes the notional areas that emerge from the meanings of the names and describes the semantic interrelations among the names discussed. The aim of the paper is to complement traditional onomatological research and compare it with a new way of analysing names, the conclusions of which may facilitate research on other types of names, as well.
A Nyelvőr hírei