Research on the ancient history of Hungarian and scholars’ responsibility
This short paper was originally delivered as a talk at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences at a conference entitled “The responsibility of our disciplines”. The author being a Finno-Ugrist, his talk concerned the responsibility of scholars working in that field. The responsibility of a researcher instance, a microbiologist should not try and masquerade as a linguist, and a linguist should not pretend to be an expert on microbiology (albeit the present author knows of no linguist who has ever tried to take a stance on some scientific or scholarly issue outside linguistics). In particular, what a researcher working on Hungarian and on Uralic languages should advance are justifiable explanations and plausible assumptions concerning the history (or “ancient history”) of Hungarian; the author therefore mentions a range of characteristics that can safely be attributed to temporally distant predecessors of the Hungarian language. It is also the responsibility of the scholarly community that editors of journals or other publications should only publish papers that have undergone an appropriate reviewing procedure and organisers of scholarly events should also filter out talks that intend to propagate dilettante views. Furthermore, researchers should inform the interested general public about recent results of their disciplines in a comprehensible form.
Gábor Döbrentei and the cause of the Hungarian language
Scholarly Society, the predecessor of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (founded in 1825). The author briefly presents the linguistic activities of the eminent all-round cultural organiser by situating Döbrentei’s life and work within the age of enlightenment and the Hungarian Reform Age (first half of the nineteenth century) as well as within the context of the state and situation of the Hungarian language.
Nyelv és stílus
Faludi the stylistic innovator
In this talk, the author applies the tenets of the Prague School concerning the emergence of literary language to the oeuvre of Ferenc Faludi (1704–1779). With a detailed discussion of his ‘A book of notes’, he tries to support the claim that Faludi was, above all, a stylistic innovator. In par- ticular, he investigates the way two specific features of literary language that the Prague School emphasized occur in Faludi’s work: a) the polifunctionalism of linguistic tools and hence their higher level of differentiation, and b) intellectuality, i.e., the elaboration of – mainly lexical and syntactic – tools that make language capable of representing higher levels of abstraction and accu- rately expressing the logical process of thinking, including its complexity.
Nép és nyelv
Ló ‘horse’ in compound plant names
Except for some fodder-plants, most compound plant names in ló- have nothing to do with ‘equus caballus’; the anterior constituent ló- normally refers to size. Either to the size of the whole plant, or to that of its fruit, stone, or blossom. The attribute ló modifies names of plant species that are larger than others of their kind. Just like with some animal names beginning in ló, where the referent is larger than the breed referred to by the posterior constituent on its own. That is, ló means ‘large’ in such names. Examples include lótetű ‘mole-cricket’ (cf. tetű ‘louse’), lódarázs ‘hornet’ (cf. darázs ‘wasp’), and a few others. Large-bodied horses were taken as a measure. (Today, the same idea is more often expressed by ‘mammoth’ or ‘elephant’.) Among botanic terms, compounds in ló- occur even more frequently. Another function of the anterior constituent at hand is discrimination: it expresses that the plant or part of plant concerned is not fit for human consumption.
A nyelvtudomány műhelyéből
Corrective strategies of disfluencies in listeners’ speech perception
The effects that speakers’ disfluencies make on the listener are rather complex; in other words, the perceptual mechanism of the listener reacts to disfluencies in a very peculiar manner. That mechanism is able to rectify speakers’ disfluencies without the listener noticing. This is an incredibly fast process, given that while the mechanism carries on interpreting the incoming waveform as a series of linguistic segments and suprasegmental features, it immediately starts searching the listener’s mental lexicon for the appropriate lexemes. At the same time, it is ready to receive and process erroneous messages, as well. The authors have designed an experiment to learn more about that unconscious process of correction.
The relation of lexicographical information to LSP norms
This paper discusses the relationship between lexicographical information and LSP (language for special purposes) norms, in particular, the presence of terminological and semantic norms in dictionaries. At present, more technical vocabulary than ever is being taken over by the standard language and as a result these words and phrases have to be incorporated into standard dictionaries as well. There are interrelations and partial overlaps between the general language norms and the LSP norms. A number of terms and their meanings were studied from the point of view of LSP norms in general dictionaries and in LSP dictionaries, both monolingual and bilingual ones. The results of these studies clearly show that dictionaries often do not conform to LSP norms. To illustrate this point, the present paper analyses some terms and their meanings given in Hungarian bilingual and monolingual dictionaries.
Factitive constructions in a Middle Hungarian corpus
This paper is one of the syntactic draft chapters that a team of the Institute for Linguistics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences have produced to be included in the Middle Hungarian volume (1526–1772) of The Historical Grammar of the Hungarian Language. The author aims at clarifying some theoretical issues concerning the delimitation of verbal voices on the one hand, and at presenting factitive constructions both from the point of view of the head and of the complements, on the basis of a Middle Hungarian corpus that is composed of texts of heterogeneous genres, on the other.
Dialogue as conversation between texts
This paper applies the methods of text linguistics to analyse the linguistic, cognitive, and affective features of dialogue as an intertextual text type. According to current research, intertextuality is not only a basic component of post-modern literature but also an organising principle in dramatic conversations. This disquisition takes the most important elements of intertextuality into consideration and illustrates them by dialogues from contemporary Hungarian drama. The most frequent of those elements are (1) figures based on detraction: contextual or situational ellipsis and aposiopesis; (2) topic change or topic shift; and (3) direct vs. indirect speech and narrative. These factors, together with explicit and implicit references, create the intertextual cohesion of dialogue as conversation between different texts or text types.
Names of rock climbers’ paths in Hungary
The aim of this paper is to give a taste of a multifarious world of names that have been linguistically unexplored so far. The author’s further intention is to discuss the motivations of individual names, based on interviews conducted with rock climbers, on the basis of the aspectual and general onomatological analysis presented here. Another interesting area to investigate would be the names of rock climbers’ paths in other languages described in a contrastive framework that could eventually lead on to the discovery of universals in naming rock climbers’ paths.
Ami kimaradt a Lőrincze-kötetből
A Nyelvőr hírei