Hungarian metainformational verbs concerning the value of information and the processing of information
Information transmitted from the sender to the receiver has a certain value, determined primarily by the following factors: 1. the truth value of the information; 2. the degree of informatedness of the receiver; 3. the amount of redundancy in the information. Metainformational verbs that reflect the value of the information as determined by the receiver show that the evaluation of the truth value of the information can be performed in two different respects: 1. from the point of view of the information sender; 2. from the point of view of the metainformation sender. The sender’s attitude with respect to the information he transmits, as well as his opinion on the truth value of the information that he additionally conveys to the receiver, are described by verbs like állít ‘state’, biztosít ‘assure’, garantál ‘guarantee’, kezeskedik ‘vouch for’, feltételez ‘suppose’, vél ‘figure’, vélekedik ‘opine’, kételkedik ‘doubt’, kétségbe von ‘cast doubts on’, tagad ‘deny’, sejt ‘guess’, tart ‘hold’, gondol ‘have in mind’ (as in Arra gondolok, hogy hamarosan 65 éves leszek ‘What I have in mind is that I’ll soon be 65 years old’).
On agreement governed by quantity
The author’s previous paper in this year’s first issue of Magyar Nyelv r (pp. 10–22) discussed some errors, peculiarities, and curiosities of grammatical agreement governed by collective nouns. In the present paper, written with similar methods and aims, he turns to some particulars of the general issue of agreement that share ‘quantity’ as a common feature. The analysis is based on a data set collected between 1992 and 2003. First, agreement within the quantifier phrase, then (in the lengthiest part of the paper) agreement governed by a quantified noun, and finally, that governed by a quantifier (a numeral used as a noun or a pronoun referring to quantity) is considered.
The orthography of the Hungarian compound words
The aim of this paper is to present a keynote lecture about one of the most complicated problem in Hungarian orthography: the orthography of the compound words, which is based on semantic and syntactic rules. This research work is made for the invitation of the Hungarian Linguistic Committee in Hungarian Academy of Sciences. First the authors examine the semantic and syntactic rules which appear in the orthography of the compound words, and they also give a summary of the traditional way in writing with reference to these words. Besides they collect the great number of occurrences which are not codified in the 11th edition of the orthographical regulation and dictionary of the Academy, therefore cause a lot of problem in writing (eg. compound words containing abbreviations, proper names, foreign word etc.). The authors not only sum up, but try to solve these problems by suggesting different ways of solution. The paper also contains word lists demonstrating each occurrence.
Nyelv és iskola
Teacher trainees’ speech production in reading aloud
In this paper, the speech production of teacher trainees who are better speakers and readers than usual is investigated in their reading out texts of fiction. The author analyses their articulation errors, cases of incorrect realisation of suprasegmentals and reading mistakes; then she compares the data with results of a similar survey in which the participants were students whose overall speech production was of an average quality. The analysis reveals that teacher trainees with betterthan- average speaking skills also err a lot in reading aloud; especially prosodic mistakes and misreadings abound in their production.
Nép és nyelv
A situation report on the dialect word stock of Biharugra
Pál Szabó’s daughter, Ágnes Bertalan has gleaned dialect words of Biharugra from his father’s writings. The author now publishes that collection, comparing it to the material of the Concise Explanatory Dictionary of Hungarian, the New Hungarian Dialect Dictionary, and the Dialect Dictionary of Sárrét, indicating for each item whether the dictionaries listed include the given dialect word, and also what social importance the words involved have today.
A single flower does not make spring
The author investigates the various popular names of a species of flowers blooming early in the spring, covering in each case the cause and type of naming involved.
A nyelvtudomány műhelyéből
The necessity of a new redefinition of ‘morpheme’
The Polish linguist Jan Baudouin de Courtenay (1845–1929) was the first to use the term morpheme (1881, Kazan). Since then, the term has been redefined over and over again. Nowadays, the morpheme is the smallest meaningful or formal unit in a language, in a word, or in a grammar, or the smallest linguistic sign. The author of this paper gives a new redefinition of morpheme as follows: The morpheme is the smallest asymmetrical formal unit with any kind of meaning or function in word structures.
The Rabbits’ Isle scriptorium
In connection with recent editions of codices, it has repeatedly been suspected that, in some cases, what György Volf had determined in Nyelvemléktár [A collection of early Hungarian documents] as the same scriptor’s hand actually involves several different hands. Such paleographic suspicion can be supported or refuted by linguistic methods. These are: the practice of the hand under scrutiny in the application of phoneme–grapheme correspondences or in end-of-word division marks, the types of text organisation, dialectal features, and types of errors committed. In the course of one such investigation it turned out that one of the hands of the Gömöry Codex shows clear similarity with Lea Ráskay’s practice and it also became evident that the two copiers must have worked on the same codex in several cases. The similarity of linguistic solutions and of the overall appearance of the texts suggests a shared tradition: that of the scriptors’ workshop in the Rabbits’ Isle. The paper draws the ‘mosaic portrait’ of three scriptors of that workshop.
This paper deals with an appraisal of appositive clauses. Given the claim that an apposition is neither an attribute of its head nor a subordinate part of the construction it appears in (as discussed in the author’s earlier two-part paper published in Magyar Nyelvőr), a complex sentence involving an appositive subordinate clause cannot be taken to be an instance of attributive subordination, either. If it is true that, in an appositive construction, the apposition and the head are syntactic constituents of the same type, this affects the definition of the type of subordination that an appositive clause embodies, too. The appositive clause corresponding to the syntactic role of the appositive phoric element in the main clause, then, may be an appositive predicate clause, an appositive subject clause, an appositive object clause, an appositive adverbial clause or an appositive attributive clause (but the last item on this list is not identical with the type of clause that had that name in the earlier literature since in our case the subordinate clause expands a phoric element that is an attributive apposition of a similarly attributive head).
A cognitive semantic investigation into grammatical elements of related function: Possibilities of expressing lack in Hungarian
This paper surveys possible means of expressing ‘the lack of something’. Various solutions are available for that purpose (using an independent word, circumscription, derived adjectives, postpositional adjectives, anterior or posterior constituents of compounds, as well as adjectives with derivational suffix-like posterior constituents). Of these, a detailed description is given of the meanings and mutual relationships of words involving the denominal privative suffix -talan/-telen ‘-less’, the derivational suffix-like posterior constituent -mentes ‘-free’, the postpositional adjective nélküli ‘without’, or the posterior compound constituent -szegény ‘poor in’. For determining the meanings and semantic relations of various realisations expressing the lack of something, the author employs a method of categorisation based on the notion of prototype as in cognitive semantics in order to find out whether these data can be appropriately explored within the theoretical framework chosen.
The way of marking quotations in Hungarian printed documents
From the mid-seventeenth century up to the appearance of the first quotation marks, quotations were marked in two ways: (1) by a combination of a punctuation mark that from the early eighteenth century onwards was a colon and of a capital letter; and (2) along with the above, by italicisation.