Co-occurrence and frequency of disfluencies in Hungarian spontaneous speech
Speech disfluencies are generally defined as phenomena that interrupt the flow of speech and do not add propositional contents to an utterance. Most disfluencies are not problems in speaking but the solutions to problems arising while speaking. There are various forms of disfluencies like long silent pauses, filled pauses, repeated words, restarts, false starts, repairs, prolongations, changes, diverse fillers, slips of the tongue, etc. Spontaneous speech differs not only in the amount and frequency of disfluencies it contains but also in the types that the actual speakers produce. The question arises whether there is any tendency to be traced concerning language-specific (occurrences and) frequency of various types of disfluencies in fluent speech. In this paper the author takes a closer look at the types, co-occurrences, and relative frequency of disfluencies in Hungarian spontaneous speech. The results show that instances of uncertainty occur at every 5.47 words in the material analysed, there are errors at every 33.25 words, while interruptions (discounting silent pauses) occur at every 10.109 words. The distribution of disfluency phenomena is more speaker-dependent than language-dependent. The types and occurrences of these phenomena are discussed in detail in this paper for the first time with respect to Hungarian.
The role of specialist languages in the development of civilisation
The author thinks that the discipline studying ‘language for special purposes’ (or specialist/ technical language) cannot be created merely by extending the boundaries of terminology research. Terminologies and specialist languages are different things deserving two different research areas for studying them. Their scopes are not identical, rather, they intersect. The study of specialist languages is mainly part of linguistics, whereas terminology research is an area that belongs to linguistics to a lesser extent and to the appropriate technical areas to a larger extent. The subject matter of terminology research does not only include a set of technical terms as names but also, and equally importantly, the body of knowledge represented by individual terminological systems. Terminological banks are banks of expertise, of specialist information. The systematisation of terminology is the systematisation of expertise, of expert knowledge.
Grapes and Wine
The author argues against the spelling of the names of various types of grapes and wine with a capital letter, a widespread but not accepted practice. He claims that “a number of types of grapes and a few types of wine would surely deserve being spelt with a capital initial, or even in block capitals throughout. Maybe using golden ink. However, the prevailing orthographical regulations of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences suggest doing the opposite”.
Nyelv és iskola
The role Hungarian plays in public life Evaluative speech at the final round of the Ferenc Kazinczy Fair Speech Contest
This paper is a written version of the author’s evaluative speech that he delivered at the final round of the “Ferenc Kazinczy” Fair Hungarian Speech Contest in Győr. As in earlier years, his speech had a central theme: this year, it was the role that Hungarian, or language in general, plays in the public life of the linguistic community. He pointed out that, in addition to making individual as well as social communication possible, the language of a community serves that community in a number of other ways as well (e.g., by adopting and adapting loanwords); in particular, the Hungarian community was so served by the Language Reform, the fortunate development of Literary Hungarian, etc. – With respect to the contestants, he gladly listed what he found in their performance on the positive side (appropriate choice of text, prevalence of natural way of speaking, enhancing the textuality of the text, etc.) but he did not remain silent about what he found problematic, either (contestants had sometimes lost sight of the role of punctuation marks while reading aloud, some of them had inappropriately stressed the Christian names of persons in addition to stressing their family names, some had committed errors in reading, etc.). Finally, he thanked the teachers who had helped the contestants’ preparation, contestants themselves, the secondary school that had organised the contest and the city of Győr for their hospitality.
A nyelvtudomány műhelyéből
How to be sorry in Hungarian
This paper, based on a linguistic corpus elicited from 120 subjects with a discoursecomplementation questionnaire, undertakes three tasks. 1. Partly on the basis of results of experiments conducted abroad, and partly on the basis of her own research, the author gives a pragmatic description of apologizing in Hungarian: she defines the individual types of strategy, lists the appropriate forms going with each, and explores the connections between their frequency of occurrence and social as well as internal contextual factors of the relevant situations. 2. She describes the differences in the use of apparently synonymous forms. 3. Comparing her results with those of international investigations, she points out specificities of the behaviour of the Hungarian community of speakers with respect to this speech act.
How many cases are there in Hungarian?
The number of nominal cases in Hungarian fluctuates between 28 and 17 in grammars written in the past fifty years. For instance, in Kenesei, Vago, and Fenyvesi (1998: 192), nouns have twenty-seven cases. The present author thinks that the inflectional suffixes of Hungarian should be divided into markers (jelek) and inflexional endings (ragok). Markers produce the grammatical categories of words as wholes (number, tense, mood, voice, degree, aspect, infinitive, gerund, participle). Inflectional endings are the variable parts of the morphological structure of words in terms of conjugation and declension. They indicate the various cases and the various persons and numbers. The author furthermore thinks that nouns have 17 cases in Hungarian. Sixteen cases may cooccur with the definite article a/az in both the singular and the plural. The last case cannot cooccur with the definite article.
A functional study of demonstrative pronouns
This paper presents the typical and special textual functions of the class of demonstrative pronouns. Given that, among pronouns, it is demonstrative pronouns that have the widest range of referential interpretation, they likewise have the largest number of functions. The author first gives a detailed account of their typical roles, deixis and coreference. In addition, she introduces general as well as divergent or specific possibilities of their interpretation. Finally, she discusses cases of the use of demonstrative pronouns where the pronoun no longer fulfils its original pronominal functions. The sample material presented covers both written and spoken text types.
Szó- és szólásmagyarázatok
A Nyelvőr hírei