10 éves a Fórum Társadalomtudományi Szemle
THE BIRTH OF THE INDEPENDENT HUNGARIAN YOUTH ORGANISATION IN 1968
In Czechoslovakia in the 1960’s primarily the intelligentsia, mainly the studentsexpressed their dissatisfaction towards the practice of the dogmatic dictatorship. Having enough of the stiff drabness of the uniform youth organisation ledby the communistic party, they searched the opportunities of entertainment andeducation outside the framework of the Czechoslovak Youth Alliance. The Hungarian nationality college and university students living in the Slovak capital — Bratislava, in February of 1964 created the first Youth Club of Hungarians living in Slovakia called the József Attila Youth Club (at this time in Prague the club ofHungarian nationality college and university students studying in Prague called Ady Endre Student Club had already existed). Consequently, between1965—1967 further 14 Hungarian youth clubs were created in several cities ofSlovakia. Although, these clubs were not legalized by the regime of that time,but it more-or-less tolerated it. In 1968 there were attempts to create an independent Hungarian youth organisation (Hungarian Youth Organisation), that was established on Dec. 7, 1968, but its official registration was rejected by the Slovak politics following the Soviet occupation in 1968.
COLLECTIVISTIC AGRICULTURE AND THE ATTEMPTS OF AGRICULTURAL REFORM IN 1968
The study deals with the firts twenty years of the socialistic agricultural system. It examines what were the most important segments of agricultre, how the planned economy worked, what were the economic and social characteristics of nationalities in Slovakia, how can we describe the conceptual apparatus of collectivisation and collective agricultural organisation, how the socialist cooperative system had been built? But it also examines the social situation of agricultural workers, and the situation of Hungarian agricultural workers? Consequently, it examines what agricultural conceptions were born during the economic reform in 1968 and if its certain elements could live further in the period of normalisation?
ETHNIC PATTERN AND ETHNIC IDENTITY IN THE NITRA DISTRICT
The Nitra District is situated in the verge of the Slovak-Hungarian contact zone. At the end of the Middle Ages the district was populated predominantly by Hungarians. Due to the wars in the 16-18th Century, the researched area became a multiethnic region, where the mixing of the population with different ethnic background is a common phenomenon. This mixing resulted in a multiethnic or unsteady identity, which strengthens the assimilation processes. In the Nitra District, there is connection between the geographical position and the strength of the assimilation of the Hungarian minority. The author tries to outline the factors which are the indicators of the decrease of the Hungarian community and which are indicators of the weakening Hungarian ethnic identity (e.g. statistical data, results of elections). The final part of the study focuses on the level of the settlements. In this part the present day situation of the Hungarian community is presented through the case of five multiethnic settlements.
THE EVERYDAY-LIFE OF THE CARPATHIAN POPULATION ON THE BASIS OF CONTEMPORARY HUNGARIAN PRESS IN THE 1920’s
The Peace-treaties terminating the First World War attached the Carpathians to Czechoslovakia together with the Hungarians living there. The study examines on the basis of the contemporary Hungarian press of the Carpathians inconnection with the press that in what extent was the contemporary press communicative; if there were any factors hindering press issuance; who or what organisations were publishing papers during the Czechoslovak period; the revealed press was of what orientation; political papers or eventually tabloids dominated; was the any role of minority protection of the Hungarian press felt.
In connection with the life of population the study examines how the life of the Hungarian population changed during the power changes; how were the changes perceived; how the acts made by the Czechoslovak government influenced the life of Hungarian minorities in the Carpathians and in what extent were the regulations oriented on minority protection followed.
„THE PRIDE OF OUR GROUP/ THE PORTRAIT OF MÁTYÁS RÁKOSI...” CARNIVAL NEWS-VERSES FROM THE TIME OF THE SOCIALISM. SOME NEW CONTRIBUTIONS ON PRISONER-CUTTING IN SAJÓNÉMETI
The carnival custom called prisoner-cutting (or prisoner-carrying) is known onlyin Sajónémeti, except for the palócvidék. Its essence is that within the framework of a „court case“ one or two „prisoners” are called guilty of all the crimes committed in the village (robbery, theft, tricking), for which „the prisoners” have to die (a big pot is stroke from their head). The custom was revived after the Second World War in 1953, then organised again in 1966, 1986, 1996 and 2004. The study compares an indictment comprising of three crimes (news-verses) (from 1953, 1966, and 1986), that reflect the three different periods of the socialism and accordingly, they describe the eminent and lesseminent events that happened in the village, in a different way.
LITERATURE OF A CASUIST SAID IN HEADWORDS (EXTRACTS)
Casuism was traditionally part of theological, more specifically of moral philosophical studies at the Jesuits, and it was focused on giving moral-philosophy interpretation to such events that have no direct referencing rule. But in this study’s focus is not on this casuism, but on a casuist, the author itself, who likes to be absorbed by the original function and content of moralphilosophy in such casestudies, and begins with those strands that connect the given cause with the system that can be called metaphysical. All these are explained in connection with the works of G. B. Shaw, Vladilsav Vančura, Charles Perrault, Balzac, D. Defoe, Milan Kundrea, Le Sage, Kierkegaard, Shakespeare and others.
A MAN LIVING WITH A PEN IN HIS HANDS. APPROACHES TO THE PROSE AND PUBLICISTIC WORKS OF THE 60-YEAR-OLD LÁSZLÓ TÓTH
The study shows the works of the Hungarian publicist and historian of culture/education living in Slovakia, who turned sixty years this year — László Tóth— on the basis of his published works’ analysis. Therefore, the focus of thestudy is the examination of the Hungarian literature in Czechoslovakia, mainly its years after the Second World War, a period known as „the years of silence”, that we can mostly know through the works of László Tóth. His interview-volume titled Dispute and Statement is characterised by the third period of the Hungarian literature in Czechoslovakia „as a frame novel”, although the History of Hungarian Culture/Education in (Czecho)Slovakia 1918—1998 compiled by him is considered to be his most outstanding work, stressing that from it the reader can acquire an adequate outline on the whole of the Hungarian intellectual life in Czechoslovakia.