THE STUDIES OF THE REFUGEE HUNGARIAN STUDENTS FROM THE UPPER HUNGARY BETWEEN 1945—1949
From the end of the Second World War from the territories of the newly established Czechoslovakia belonging formerly to Hungary, persons of Hungarian nationality escaped to the territory of Hungary.
Due to the right-depriving arrangements and pursuing politics of the Czechoslovak state they could imagine their life only in the territory of the Hungarian state. Between the more than one thousand refugees there were a lot students who in their original place of living being in the territory of the Czechoslovak state could not attend schools due to their Hungarian nationality.
The Hungarian national authorities were to organize extensive education for these young people of different ages. For the young-age children schools were ensured in places, where their parents settled, while for the poorest ones colleges were established. Secondary school students were sent to dormitories, and/or were supported through their studies. For university students colleges were arranged and were granted financial support through years. At the same time they received increased attention during their studies in order to be successful. To the anti-Hungarian arrangements of the Czechoslovak authorities the attention was drawn on national level.
They studies of the students to the East-Slovakian Communistic takeover in 1948/1949 were helped and insured. Their majority in 1949 and in 1950 could return home in adventurous conditions to their Czechoslovak homes.
LANGUAGE IDEOLOGIES AND PHILOSOPHIES
The paper deals with some of the general questions concerning language ideologies and gives an overview of the most important language ideologies present in the works of Hungarian linguists, namely conservatism, nationalism, purism, vernacularism, internationalism, standardism (standard ideology), homogenism and pluralism. Besides language ideologies the paper shortly characterises two philosophies which play a similar role to language ideologies, namely Platonism and rationalism.
It is well-known that language ideologies are used by the power elite to discriminate (groups of) people on the basis of their language — an attitude and social practice called linguicism. The paper also adverts to the three of the most drastic consequences of ideologizing language use: negative evaluation of the speakers’ language competence, cognitive competence and personal character because of the way they use their language.
The author emphasizes the fact that the presence of language ideologies in linguistic research, in the presentation of research findings, in language planning and in the management language problems is necessary, therefore the aim of the scholars cannot be to eliminate language ideologies but to make them explicit.
BEHAVIOURAL PATTERNS OF GUEST–WORK-TYPE MIGRATION AT THE SZÉKELYFÖLD TERRITORY
After the period of system-changes the phenomena of foreign employmenttype migration at the Székelyföld was very extensive. From the beginning of the 1990’s to the present the topic is more and more interested, several institutional and individual research programs made efforts to map the general trends of migration, and/or migration practice relating to certain regions, territories defined by time parameters.
In this work I summarize the migration research made on the Székelyföld territory done to this time, that is sixteen years and I also try to outline the dominant models of guest-work-type migration at the Székelyföld. This analyzing and typology-creating work enables to get a more subtle picture of the guestwork- type migration phenomena of the territory.
LABOUR MIGRATION FROM SLOVAKIA AFTER THE 2004 ENLARGEMENT OF THE EU
The mobility of Slovak citizens proved to be relatively high after the 2004 enlargement of the European Union. The intensity of migration flows towards other member states has been between the highest among new EU-members, together with Lithuania, Latvia and Poland. The labour out-migration reached its top during the second half of 2007, when approximately 250 thousand Slovak citizens were working abroad. It was around 10 % of total employment and 4,6 % of whole population. Between 2003 and 2007 the number of people working abroad according to the Slovak labour force survey rose by one hundred thousand. This rise accounted nearly half of the total employment growth. With these levels and importance of labour mobility Slovakia was well ahead of Hungary and Czech Republic but much behind the countries that joined the EU in 2007. The post-accession migration flow could be characterized as a temporary labour migration of mostly young (two thirds of migrants were under the age of 35) people without dependants motivated mostly by higher salaries and living standards in the receiving countries. The workers from less developed (eastern and central) regions of Slovakia with lower GDP per capita and higher unemployment were overrepresented, while more developed western regions had substantially lower share of migrants. The outflow from the most developed region (the county with the capital, Bratislava) remained marginal. Nearly two third of Slovak citizens working abroad were employed in three neighbouring countries: Czech Republic (40 % share), Hungary and Austria, but the highest rise in outflow after the 2004 EU accession was due to migration to the United Kingdom and Ireland. The number of citizens working in the UK as a percentage of home country population reached the third highest level among new EU members after Lithuania and Latvia.
From the beginning of 2008 the number of people working abroad is declining — both domestic and foreign statistic sources confirm this development. There are various factors behind this change: notably the combination of strong economic convergence of Slovakia (in terms of GDP per capita, price levels and incomes) and the strong appreciation of the Slovak koruna against most currencies used in destination counties (British pound, euro, Hungarian forint). The fact that the migrants intended to stay only temporary as well as the deteriorating economic situation in many host countries also plays a significant role. The absolute size of the younger population in Slovakia is also shrinking because of the declining fertility since the early 1980’s, this limits the number of potential migrants. Considering the perspective of deepening recession and rising unemployment in many receiving countries probably the return migration process will strengthen from the end of 2008.
THE APPLICATION OF SYNCHRONIC LINGUISTIC METHODS IN THE INVESTIGATION OF LOCAL VILLAGE NAMES
The subject of this study is the linguistic typology of village settlement names of approximately 62 settlements from Losonc district, which used to be part of historical Nograd county. For this linguistic study it was vital to get acquainted with the previous toponym analysing models. From these known typology models I have chosen to use the multi-dimensional typology model, which seemed to be more appropriate for my research than the single dimensional. Bearing in mind the limits of single dimensional typology model, which does not allow the deeper study of toponyms, I have decided to stick to the multidimensional name analysing model elaborated by Istvan Hoffman, published in his work, Helynevek nyelvi elemzése (1993). In this study he accomplishes the structural description of toponyms on three levels: functional-semantic level, lexical-morphological and sintagmetic level.
In my research the analysis of settlement names was made on two levels, making a clear distinction between the structural and etymological phase. The structural part consists of the functional-semantic level and lexical-morphological level. In the first level I put an emphasis on the examination of the functions present in toponyms, and within the lexical-morphological analysis I dealt with the importance of toponyms in the formation of settlement names. The results of my study clearly reflect the already known framework of rules that are known to be true when discussing the formation of settlement names. In most cases, the ownership of village settlements played an enormous role in the name giving process, due to which the majority of settlements were named after their owner. The metonymic name giving was also frequently used in the formation of settlement names, however etymology as a name giving process, was not widely spread in this region. On the other hand, name borrowing from other language was also present, namely many settlement names have their origin in Slave language. This study, in my opinion, can serve as a good foundation for further investigation of name giving processes in the Losonc district.
THE ROLE OF 1968 IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTIONAL SYSTEM
The 1968 gave hope not only for the renewal of the political life of Czechoslovakia and of the political life of the Hungarian community living in Czechoslovakia, but for the revitalization of the whole Hungarian society living in Slovakia. In this process during the period of the Prague Spring — and even after it — the Csemadok had an outstanding role reaching well over its power and actual possibilities that even undertook to re-start the Hungarian scientific life in Slovakia. The conception was after the April of 1969 torpedoed by arising normalization by simply sweeping the plan of the minority scientific institute under the table. To 1970 it came out that the Husak socialism not only cannot tolerate the existence of the separate Hungarian institutional system, but it does not even allow the social role-taking of the Csemadok. From the March of 1971 within the frameworks of the Csemadok hallmarked by István Fábry, Béla Varga, and János Varga the scientific societies organized in 1969—1970 also had no place. Instead of them remained the parades, celebration and the folklore dancers waving towards grandstands.
THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE HUNGARIAN PEOPLE’S ARMY AND SOUTH-SLOVAKIAN POPULATION DURING CZECHOSLOVAKIA’S OCCUPATION IN 1968
The co-operation of the Hungarian People’s Army during Czechoslovakia’s Occupation in 1968 was one of the episodes of the twentieth century that was burdened with contradictions and that mainly harmed the thinking of people It brought to the surface prejudice being deeply in the consciousness of two nations living together for 1100 years, tore a number of hardly healed wounds. The pain that it caused was not even relieved by the way how it was presumably clear in Hungary and Czechoslovakia that the aggression served expressly political and army interests of the Soviet great powers to which the less interest was connected to Hungary, contemporary Hungarian political and army leadership.
ON THE NATIONALISM OF THE HUNGARIANS LIVING IN CZECHOSLOVAKIA — AS IT WAS SEEN AT RADIO FREE EUROPE (RFE)
Present study makes a research into the role and position of Czechoslovak citizens of ethnic Hungarian origin during the reform-Communist movement of 1968 Czechoslovakia. Study is based on English-language archival ducuments form the Open Society Archives (Budapest) where some parts of the archives of Radio Free Europe are held. Vajda’s analysis is based on news and background situation reports that had been created and circulated within the editorial departments of RFE between late 1967 and late 1968. Study has three major conclusions: (i) RFE was extremely focused and keen on any little sign of conflict either within Czechoslovakia or outside it; (ii) from the viewpoint of RFE, political and cultural activities of Hungarians in Czechoslovakia in 1968 were generally regarded as signs of nationalism; (iii) thus such kind of nationalism of Hungarians living in Czechoslovakia for a while became a significant factor of the Czechoslovak events.