ĄUDOVÍT ©TÚR INT HE MEMORY OF THE SLOVAKS
The study summarizes the extensive activities of Ąudovít ©túr, one of the codifiers of the Slovak standard language, journalist, national politician of the 19th century, ©túr begun as a literature scientist, outlined the characteristics of the Slav poetry, even studied romantic poetry. As a language scientist participated in the codification of the Standard Slovak language that he theoretically supported with linguistic studies, and practically in the first Slovak paper introduced by him, the Slovenské národné noviny (in translation: The Slovak National Newspaper), used and extended it. He considered the existence of the uniform standard language as one of the prerequisites of forming a uniform Slovak nation independent from the other Slav (primarily Czech) nations. He was a determining creator of the Slovak national identity. His name is connected not only with the positive identity marks, but also with the negative stereotypes (self-definition toward neighbouring nations, mainly toward Hungarians).
He extended his national program with political aims, but through the Hungarian civil revolution in 1848 he anticipated the support of the reactive Vienna for the Slovak issue, later disappointedly he turned to the idea of the all- Slav unity, that he described in his Russophile work considered as the first Slovak political work.
LANGUAGE IDEOLOGIES AND PHILOSOPHIES
The paper deals with some of the general questions concerning language ideologies and gives an overview of the most important language ideologies present in the works of Hungarian linguists, namely conservatism, nationalism, purism, vernacularism, internationalism, standardism (standard ideology), homogenism and pluralism. Besides language ideologies the paper shortly characterises two philosophies which play a similar role to language ideologies, namely Platonism and rationalism.
It is well-known that language ideologies are used by the power elite to discriminate (groups of) people on the basis of their language — an attitude and social practice called linguicism. The paper also adverts to the three of the most drastic consequences of ideologizing language use: negative evaluation of the speakers’ language competence, cognitive competence and personal character because of the way they use their language.
The author emphasizes the fact that the presence of language ideologies in linguistic research, in the presentation of research findings, in language planning and in the management language problems is necessary, therefore the aim of the scholars cannot be to eliminate language ideologies but to make them explicit.
THE DETERMINING INFLUENCE OF BELONGING TO AN ETHNIC COMMUNITY ON THE BEHAVIOUR OF THE MEMBERS OF THE SLOVAK MAJORITY AND SLOVAK MINORITY
In our work we focus mainly on the results of analyses relating behaviour determined by ethnic belonging of members of the examined minorities.
Therefore, the work focuses on the examination of influence between two indicators independent on each other (nationality and age) and between two indicators dependent on each other (behaviour of the selected ethnicity and of the „other“ ethnicity). Therefore it is a survey on the basis of the assessment of two levels of behaviour, through which the respondents in a projective way make efforts on the level of assessment of their own ethnicity to „assess“ their own behaviour and on the level of assessment of other ethnicities to judge the relationship toward them.
TERMINOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IN SLOVAK-HUNGARIAN AND HUNGARIAN-SLOVAK SPECIALIZED DICTIONARIES PUBLISHED IN SLOVAKIA
The study presents Slovak-Hungarian and Hungarian specialized dictionaries, including school dictionaries published in Slovakia, which, according to their authors are designed for narrowly specialized professionals, students, who search for basic terms of their study subjects and even non-professionals interested in the subject. Confrontation examination of Slovak terms and their Hungarian equivalents revealed numerous weak points of these works — in many cases, the dictionaries do not use the standard Hungarian identification of Slovak words and expressions. This inadequacy in denoting Hungarian equivalents may be caused by incorrect and/or insufficient confrontation of Slovak and Hungarian terms, as well as their variance and different motivation. The contribution provides stimuli to research into diferenciation of Hungarian specialized lexicon.
THE POLISH MINORITY IN CZECHOSLOVAKIA BETWEEN 1968 AND 1970
Similarly to the past the communistic normalisation regime after 1969 made efforts to restrict minority policy to the territory of culture and education. Therefore the majority of goals defined by the Polish minority representatives of the Czech Teschen territory were not fulfilled. On the other hand the initiatives in 1968 brought a new form to the nationality policy of Czechoslovakia. Besides the fact that the minority rights were codified in the constitution, this period was characterized by the intensive activity of minority leaders. In the history of Czechoslovakia the national minorities presented themselves together in the summer of 1968, while the mutual efforts can be considered to be successful from several aspects. At the same time they worked out the seeds of the plan of minority government, that was not a model of a local government, but it integrated the several state and civil minority institutions.
The Teschen events prove that in the minority policy the memories of the past play a large role. It is the issue on the history - emancipation efforts of the Polish minority - that proves the important role of historical memory in the politics.
BEHAVIOURAL PATTERNS OF GUEST—WORK-TYPE MIGRATION AT THE SZÉKELYFÖLD TERRITORY
After the period of system-changes the phenomena of foreign employment-type migration at the Székelyföld was very extensive. From the beginning of the 1990’s to the present the topic is more and more interested, several institutional and individual research programs made efforts to map the general trends of migration, and/or migration practice relating to certain regions, territories defined by time parameters.
In this work I summarize the migration research made on the Székelyföld territory done to this time, that is sixteen years and I also try to outline the dominant models of guest-work-type migration at the Székelyföld. This analyzing and typology-creating work enables to get a more subtle picture of the guestwork- type migration phenomena of the territory.