Territorial differences in the entrepreneurial range of southern Slovakia
The goal of the study is to introduce the three elements of structural characteristics of entrepreneurial activity - economic organisations with legal entities, private enterprises and foreign investments — in connection to Southern Slovakia, and to call attention to significant regional differences within enterprising activities in relation to the state, and/or Southern Slovakia.
While examining the Southern Slovakia processes by territories in most cases the statistical data of Bratislava and Košice are not mentioned, since the social and economic indicators of these two cities would significantly distort the innovation potential of the compact territory that is situated by the border of Slovakia and Hungary and has a number of Hungarian minority and 16 districts (of which 1/3 of the 1,5 million of population is of Hungarian nationality).
After the three years from the time of joining the European Union the economic indicators of Southern Slovakian regions lived by Hungarian minority are still more unfavourable comparing with the similar indicators of the country’s other regions (from which only Dunajská Streda and its close region is the exception). Within the region the territory that is mainly lived by Hungarians in consequence of its separateness due to the underdevelopment of infrastructure, but mainly transportation network found itself more or less outside the range of interest of foreign capital.
Considering the existing social and economic relationships of Southern Slovakia we can state that the key to the social and economic renewal of the subject region are the small- and middle enterprises.
Creation and problems of the Ukraine national minority education in Slovakia
After the liberation in 1945 it was expected from the Russian and Ukrainian schools in Slovakia that they will have a determining role not only in the field of education and spreading enlightenment, but also in the effort of the revitalisation of national life of Ruthenians and Ukrainians. In this sense the national minority schools were supported even by official representation of the national minority that found its adequate reflection in the activity of the Ukrainian National Council of Prjaševščina, that actively participated in the creation of conditions for the development of national minority culture and education.
Language usage of minorities — without mother-country
The Russian small Finn-Ugrian people during their history never formed an independent state, and/or even if they created any organized state-like formation on nationality level, its existence disappeared from the memory of the history. This - perhaps well-known fact - comes with significant consequences relating to the recent language state of people, language usage problems of today, and recent language policy.
These languages are not in the same position: part of them have significant number of speakers, while their other part almost reached or already reached that number, from where it is impossible to stop the process that leads to language losing or language death. Although, they agree that today even the language with the largest number of its speakers is categorized to the „most endangered“ group.
From the study we can learn about the history of the Udmurt people, its language, and farming of the Udmurt Republic. We can have a glance into the culture and official state of the Udmurt people and Udmurt language.
The Slovak Hungarian co-operative movement in the reflection of network establishment and central organisation (1918—1938)
Beginning from the first part of the 19 C the political elite of minorities in Hungary discovered that at the organisation of nationality societies the establishment of co-operative networks, and/or representation and influence gained in the state economic sector is able to support the ethno-political and cultural goals organizing the community effectively. The certain nationalities, Germans, Rumanians, Slovaks, and Ruthenians created their co-operative networks proportionally with their material and mental power sources. From the minority Hungarian societies after 1918 for the Hungarians in Transylvania (Erdély) mainly the altruistic model of Saxons in Transylvania and their successful establishment of organisation, as well as the national direction of Romanian organisations served as an appropriate example. The Hungarians living in Slovakia between the two world wars took account of this, although the Hungarian co-operatives in Transylvania, and/or considering the success of the Czech Sudeta Germans, the strategy of establishing co-operatives by the Slovak national movement and the Czech model ("minor work") became comparative bases, because they had an important role in making the Czech and the Slovak establishment of a national state.
Cultural aspects of the development of the Ruthenian and Ukrainian minority in Slovakia in the post-war decade
The development of the culture of the Ruthenian population in Slovakia was in the last centuries markedly influenced by localisation of the region in the scope of East and West, by its traditional social-economic backwardness, political immatureness of its representation, but even by the inclination of creative intelligence to romanticism and to naive reaction for actual problems of the age. From the 19th century the cultural life of South Carpathian Ruthenians was apparently marked by certain conservativism, isolation and disability to join democratizing and liberating movements of that time. In the Northeast Slovakia this situation was even worse. For these reasons the first impulses of modernisation could be applied better in the period of the first Czechoslovak Republic, in a considerably more complicated social and political situation. A certain advantage opposite the past was that care of culture and art in a greater extent and from 1948 entirely fell into the competition of the state. Expansion of culture among the population of North-east Slovakia was ensured by four Ukrainian state enlightening inspectorates in Bardejov, Snina, Stará Ľubovňa, and in Svidník. In villages with Ruthenian and Ukrainian population libraries with Ruthenian and Ukrainian literature were created and the groups of artistic creativity began to work more strongly and deliberately.
In the track of stereotypes and prejudices: Hungarian Germans in 1945
One of the most swirling milestones of the Hungarian nationality policy is the period between 1945-1948. Population exchange of that time forced the ethnic groups to leave their homes and to move to foreign territories. The government's plan was to serve several problems with re-settlements: solving the land issue, removal of Germans accused of collective liability, positioning of refugees, and fulfilment of the Agreement on Czechoslovak-Hungarian population- exchange.
At the preparation of the resettlement perhaps those economy- and politicy- based stereotypes played a major role that were created on Germans as an ethnic group by 1945. This is why it is worth of examining the possible roots of prejudice felt toward the Germans, the basis being the main media of forming contemporary public opinion, the press. The author in her study examines the creation of economic prejudice.
Immigration policy and the EU
The European integration could not exist without "the cross-border element", that is regulation in connection with the freedom of movement, speaking of goods, services, capital, or persons. The European Union through the introduction of European citizenship and establishing the legal background guarantees passing the borders, the possibility of travelling and settling in any other member state for all of us, and at the same time creates conditions silimar to those of its own citizens even to citizens of third states, if they have rightful status for "continuous stay". Thus, migration becomes the sine qua non of integration, and the social integration becomes the presumption of the migration.