Existence and education of minorities
The reasons and processes of the decreasing number of Hungarians living in Slovakia during the last two population censuses have not been disclosed in detail. Even no social research has been really commenced. The study goes back to the statistical data of the population census in order to discover the further components of the decrease, on the basis of calculating data first of all considering the age groups by five years.
The decrease was in fact caused by the national change. In the national change what role gets the education in mother language, and/or its lack, seems to be an interesting field of the topic. The vital interest of the Hungarian nationality in Slovakia is to have adequate social and economic role playing on its own territories. To reach this it is necessary to activate the modernizing reserves of education.
The study after a short introduction deals with the national movement of the last 30 years. The third part deals with the assimilation process in detail by, with the measure of vertical and horizontal decrease occurring at age groups. The author stresses that the decrease of age groups of the seventies and nineties was proportional with the decrease of Hungarians in the eighties in national point of view. The fourth part gives another statistical data on lagging behind of Hungarians considering educational level, then the author introduces the state of formal education on the basis of statistical data.
The study introduces the structural changes of public and higher education with Hungarian teaching language in detail and shows the deviation from directions of national education. The author deals with all these by taking into consideration the needs of the market.
The study deals with the role of higher education in Hungarian language from the point of view of market oriented education and on the basis of newer statistical data of the 8 universities having large number of Hungarian students shows the insufficiencies of changing field.
Situation picture on Hungarian dialects in Slovakia and their research
In our regions in relation with the situation of dialects it is hardly exaggeration to state that there is no contradictionarily judged language version than the dialects. The contradiction is present not only in the attitude of speakers of everyday language, but also in the attitude of dialect speakers. This negative attitude hides several dangers, where opposite the dialect there is a standard language of high prestige and state language supported by language acts.
Classification of dialects can the most precisely be provided on the basis of the method of language geography. Although from the Hungarian dialects in Slovakia the regional language atlas has only been recently created on dialect groups of the Nitra region that is the first edition of such kind, although there have been efforts to introduce our dialects by language geography method, that is on maps.
It is evident that it is not always possible to draw the internal borderlines of dialects in every case, and from didactical point of view it would not be useful to define the language borders by territories, but a more precise defining than the present one would be useful from the point of view of the concerned communities.
The Poetry of László Mécs in the Fifties and Sixties
The study of Zsófia Bárczi examines the poetry of László Mécs after the second world war. Poems of the poet from this period are rather unknown. The author of the study in the introduction part of her work writes on taking care of Mécs-legacy, and on those reasons due to which the poems of the poet written after the Second World War have not been published. The study deals with the connection between the imprisonment of László Mécs and the poems of the legacy. Later the author describes the poethical changes present in his poems.
Development of language cognition in the mirror of longitudinal examination
In my study, I examine the change of level of language cognition of Hungarian students in Slovakia. The examination was carried out by GMP standardized diagnosis test for speaking recognition and understanding. The research was carried out as a follow-up examination in 1999 and 2004. On the basis of the examined data it can be stated that the development of recognition does not end at the age of 10, it is a longer process with big individual differences considering the extent and speed of development. At the same time the gained results even show that in the case of older students how better processing of semantic and synthetic structures and the development of association level is helped by the incomplete cognitions.
"He cooks and bakes the body of his son." The story of Tereus at Ovidius and Gyöngyösi
The study deals with the mythos and effect of Tereus in the latin Metamorphoses ében (VI. 424-674.) of Ovidius. The story was first translated into Hungarian by István Gyöngyösi as third part of his work titled Fraudulent Cupido. The story of Tereus, Progne, and Philomela is one of the most drastic Greek myths, in which the Dionus insanity is only a camouflage, under which the deceived wife, Progne and the raped sister-in-law, Philomela mercilessly carries out the deliberate revenge, punishing of the husband, Tereus. Gyöngyösi wanted to introduce the dreadful things caused by Cupido by working out Ovidius put into Fraudulent Cupido, this is why the fire motive has extremely big role.
As in Ovidius, in the text of Gyöngyösi rhetoric has also a very important role, although the translation even strengthens the rhetoric elements, using the tools of delaying and detailing. The animal motives serve for increasing drastic and emphasizing the animal features in a human being.
"... when we assimilate!" Examination of contact-phenomena in Nyékvárkony
The presentation, analysing the language of Nyékvárkony, (located in southern
Slovakia, on Cornfield Island) is connected to the sociolinguistical and dialectological
linguistic researches whose:
- aim is an adequate description of the language usage of a given village community;
- which community exists in a bilingual situation and its language bears minority usage as a characteristic feature;
- and this minority usage can be actively and effectively shaped with the help of linguistic planning and linguistic managing.
My examination focuses the most on the community’s Hungarian verbal repertoire and its varieties and the least on the Slovak language and its varieties.
"It is difficult to explain in to a foreigner." On the Slovak translation of the school on the border
The study deals with the Slovak translation of the novel of Géza Ottlik titled School on the Border (1959).
The author considers the translation of Karol Wlachovský (1976) as a unique interpretation given of the novel. At the evaluation of the target text the author concentrates on interaction of languages used in the world of the novel (national languages, alternative language variants, different style registers, functional styles, idiolects) and on the semantic and stylistic movements that stem from it.
The study deals with the differences between the language of civilians and students of army schools, and translation problems of language elements belonging to vulgarism and scientific styles.
Opinions on language of a community in the state of language change
The study examines the mutual attitude of the Hungarian speaking community of Nagyhind (in Slovak Vel'ké Chyndice) being in developed condition of language change and languages, language versions of the majority Slovak people. On the basis of the principle of taking samples, the opinion of 78 selected respondents is grouped by knowledge of nationality, mother and Hungarian languages. The study states that the knowledge of the Slovak language is in the community essential. It is very important not only for Slovaks, but also for Hungarians. The prestige of the Slovak language stems from the similar character of the local language version of everyday language. The most of the respondents identify Hungarian language usage as communication with the old people, that they consider habitual, they do not find any curiosity in it, and they even cling to it emotionally on a certain level. It is evidenced by the fact that the majority of Slovaks would even feel sorry if the Hungarian language usage would disappear in Nagyhind. At solving concrete language usage conflicts, and/or from the point of view of Hungarian language retaining these positive attitudes do not seem to be sufficient.
Opinions on language of a community in the state of language change
The study analyses the essay of Árpád Tőzsér as classical reception esthetical work. At the same time it deals with its subject as control instance, the book of Juhász R. József titled There is still salami! The sequence of ideas deals beside the interpretation suggestions of Tőzsér with the possible neo-avant- garde historical positioning, and/or with those techniques that are the characteristics of the given paradigm. Thus are mentioned for example the several intermediatory, and/or collage processes. Moreover the study contributes to the interpretation of the mentioned book, analyses the visual works examined by Tőzsér in detail, opens those questions through which the given opus can be approached. Thus the author emphasizes the interpretation interests of the approaching method of reception esthetics with historical starting point.
The opinion of Hungarian pedagogues in Slovakia on bilingualism
The subject of the study is the examination of language attitudes of Hungarian pedagogues in Slovakia, mainly the introduction of opinions of teachers of elementary schools with Hungarian teaching language in Gemer relating bilingualism. On the research based on questionnaires took part 16 elementary teachers of Gemer. The majority identified bi-bilingualism with language knowledge of both languages on high, and/or mother-language level. Starting from this definition, the majority of pedagogues does not consider itself bi-lingual. It is relevant from the study that the pedagogues taking part in the research were not sure about the meaning of the word. Considering their opinion on using the their own language, the following tendency can be seen: being afraid of Slovakisation they reproach using slovakism, and they consider language usage consisting of borrowed words as sign of un-education. Evaluation of their own language usage can be considered negative. Despite of all these the asked pedagogues consider bilingualism positively, in spite of the fact that they do not consider themselves bilingual.
Sándor Petőfi in the Slovak literature
The study stems from the polemic reaction on non-qualified reflection of the life of S. Petőfi in the magazine Culture. At the same time the study deals with the extensive translation work of several Slovak poets and translators (Hviezdoslav, Smrek, Lukáč and others), who have merit in the fact that the literary works of the Hungarian poet S. Petőfi are accessible even for all Slovak persons interested in this poetry and thus it is unreasonable to be surprised on the fact that despite the Slovak origin he became a world-known Hungarian poet. In life - even in literal - not national belonging, but artistic and human values of the work is the contribution to cultural development. Sándor Petőfi has in the Slovak cultural environment its honorary and unsubstitutable place, because he was the creator of intimate lyrics that did not lack extents of universality from the point of view of multi-personality and multi-ethnics and its creation served for thoughts of human equality, freedom, and love.
FÓRUM TÁRSADALOMTUDOMÁNYI SZEMLE
NEGYEDÉVENKÉNT MEGJELENŐ TUDOMÁNYOS FOLYÓIRAT
A szerkesztőbizottság elnöke
Csanda Gábor, Gyurgyík László, Hunčík Péter, Hushegyi Gábor, Kiss József, Lampl Zsuzsanna, Lanstyák István, Liszka József, Mészáros András, Simon Attila, Szarka László, Tóth Károly, Végh László