Primary school segregation in Hungary at the turn of the century
The study draws on the 2006 national competence survey, covering all schools and all pupils in one school year, in attempting a detailed study of Hungarian school segregation: the degree of segregation at the inter-school and intra-school class levels, and the relations affecting settlement and regional (district) spatial differences and degree of segregation. The new feature of the analysis is its comprehensiveness. There have been several thorough research projects in recent decades into the motives and hidden mechanisms of school segregation that have covered certain sections of the Hungarian education system or the schooling policy of a particular city or division of a city. This is the first attempt to arrive at valid statements about school segregation on a basis of every primary school in the whole country.
Verseny és szabályozás
The interpretation of essential facilities and the postal services
The study challenges the essential facilities doctrine in theory and in practice. It has been present in the United States in regulatory literature and judicial and legislative practice since 1912, and it has been adopted in EU competition and sectoral regulation as well. The doctrine was devised for competition regulation, but it is becoming commoner for it to be cited in the regulation of network services as well. There have been numerous debates on its prospective role during the development of a new regulatory system for postal services–the last of the network services to be liberalized. The study begins by describing the main variant interpretations of the concept, before using the example of the United States to present the development of the doctrine and the change in its position in competition regulation. The differences over essential facilities in EU competition and regulation are explained in practice. The authors go on to look at Hungarian usage of the concept of essential facilities and to outline the debates and regulatory practices in the field of postal services.
A review of the models of inter-temporal decision-making in behavioural economics
One important research area in behavioural economics involves examining the intertemporal decisions of consumers, in a manner different from traditional economics theory. An inter-temporal decision is one in which the consumer has to decide between the gain and loss at various points in time. Traditional economics assumes the existence of a rational consumer, who discounts at the same rate all the sums subject to inter-temporal decisions. But there have been many cases and studies where the opposite is found. Behavioural economics tries to take into account the sociological and psychological factors influencing consumer decisions that differ from the consumer path considered to be rational.
Chinese exports of operating capital and Eastern Europe
Chinese operating capital has been flowing fast into the world economy since 2002. This flow is powered by the strongman policy of the Chinese state, based on the centrally set direction of the country's economic development and international role. Based on this, Chinese enterprises are mainly seeking supplies of raw materials and energy, as well as developed technology. Although Africa, SE Asia and Latin America are prioritized and most Chinese operating capital has not flowed into Europe or the Central European countries, the importance of this region in the eyes of Chinese investors has been increasing, thanks to East European policies of encouraging capital imports. Hungary may be especially attractive to Chinese enterprises as a regional distribution centre and a base for R and D.