Technical and economic efficiency in Koopmans' theory of production
Generalizing from his experience in solving practical problems, Koopmans set about devising a linear model for analysing activity. Surprisingly, he found that economics at that time possessed no uniform, sufficiently exact theory of production or system of concepts for it. He set out in a pioneering study to provide a theoretical framework for a linear model for analysing activity by expressing first the axiomatic bases of production theory, which rest on the concept of technological sets. He is associated with exact definition of the concept of production efficiency and efficiency prices, and confirmation of their relation as mutual postulates within the linear model of activity analysis. Koopmans saw the present, purely technical definition of efficiency as a special case; he aimed to introduce and analyse the concept of economic efficiency. The study uses the duality precepts of linear programming to reconstruct the results for the latter. It is shown first that evidence confirming the duality precepts of linear programming is equal in value, and secondly that efficiency prices are really shadow prices in today's sense. Furthermore, the model for the interpretation of economic efficiency can be seen as a direct predecessor of the Arrow–Debreu–McKenzie models of general equilibrium theory, as it contained almost every essential element and concept of them—equilibrium prices are nothing other than Koopmans' efficiency prices. Finally Koopmans' model is reinterpreted as a necessary tool for microeconomic description of enterprise technology.
Is Gibrat's law valid for Hungarian agriculture?
The paper examines the validity of Gibrat's law—the Law of Proportionate Effects—to Hungarian agriculture. Using a battery of specifications (OLS, FGLS, WLS, two-step Heckmann selection models, and quintile regression) and four size measures (labour, land, capital and total return), the results strongly reject Gibrat's Law for the full sample. Thus they suggest smaller farms grow faster than large. Chow-type tests reject the null of structural break between the evolution of family and corporate farms, suggesting a common growth path.
End of a success story? Transformation of the market for printing products since 1989
The article presents findings of research into the market for printing products, whose unusual feature is that the actors—primarily the producing firms—underwent rapid, comprehensive technical and technological change over the decade examined. Hungary's industrial statistics include under printing products books, newspapers, periodicals, also professional advertising materials and commercial catalogues, and packing materials with a printed surface, labels, and journals, account books and file portfolios. The trade distinguishes between publishing firms (those concerned with books and periodicals) and packaging firms (dealing mainly with forms, labels and packaging materials with a printed surface.
Melléklet • Innovációkutatás
Research and development in the public sphere
Publicly financed non-university research institutions became a subject of sharp debate and attacks in the 1990s in several West European countries. The article covers the main factors behind the disputes and the government measures that brought significant change in the profiles and modes of operation of the institutions concerned. In the light of the developments in Western Europe, it looks at whether there have been or can be expected to be similar imminent changes in Hungary. The situation of the Hungarian research institutes is analysed mainly through statistics on R and D. An attempt to answer the question is made using these and the medium-term policy strategy for science, technology and innovation adopted in 2007.