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Mikes InternationalIX. évfolyam, 3. szám / Volume IX., Issue 3., 2009. július – szeptember / July – September 2009


  • Sulyok Vince :
    Versek16 [3.57 MB - PDF]EPA-00007-00036-0050

Philosophia perennis

  • Kiss Endre :

    Worldview totality demand, otherwise transparency and complexity

    Paper published in the volume: Evoked Renaissance — Tibor Hanák Memorial Volume. Miskolc, 2006, Ed. Ildikó Veres. Papers of the international conference held to commemorate the 75th birthday of Tibor Hanák.

    Mr. Kiss highlights the fact that Tibor Hanák, the well-known philosophy historian living in the West, was very knowledgeable of Marxism, a great portion of his oeuvre deals with Marxism and its criticism. In this paper the author presents variations on a major theme of Hanák, namely Marxism and ideological totalism.

  • Mariska Zoltán :

    Epistemological metaphysics and the neokantian tradition

    Paper published in the volume: Evoked Renaissance — Tibor Hanák Memorial Volume. Miskolc, 2006, Ed. Ildikó Veres. Papers of the international conference held to commemorate the 75th birthday of Tibor Hanák.

    In his paper Mr. Mariska next to acknowledging the invaluable merits of Tibor Hanák´s work done in the field of history of Hungarian philosophy, rectifies the rather simplistic image of György Bartók created by Tibor Hanák, portrayed as a mere Hungarian Neo-Kantian philosopher. He also criticizes the unnatural grouping of the Hungarian philosophers under arbitrary categories, which inhibits the understanding of various philosophers in context, their relationship, etc.

  • Máté Zsuzsanna :

    Lukács György esztétikai munkássága — és Madách Imre: Az ember tragédiája

    A tanulmány Lukács György esztétikai gondolkodásának fordulatairól nyújt vázlatos képet, először a teoretikust mutatva be, az 1910-es évek esszékorszakától Az esztétikum sajátosságáig és A társadalmi lét ontológiájáról című művéig. Lukács esztétikai oeuvre-jének fő problémája az abszolút bizonyosság keresése volt. Életének második felében az ideológus szolgálatra kényszerítette a filozófust és az esztétát. Talán ez lehet az oka változatos hatástörténetének és az életművét körbevevő csendnek — napjainkban. A tanulmány másik része Lukács Györgynek, a kritikusnak egy tévedését mutatja be. Szerinte Madách Tragédiája drámaiatlan; felszínes filozofálgatás jellemzi, túlságosan heterogén. Emellett erőteljesnek látta benne a hegeli hatást és dialogizált filozófiai tankölteménynek minősítette. E nézetével szemben vázolja a tanulmány az ellenérveket a 7. szín dogmatikai vitája alapján.

  • Mészáros András :

    Hungarian philosophy = philosophy cultivated in Hungary

    Paper published in the volume: Evoked Renaissance — Tibor Hanák Memorial Volume. Miskolc, 2006, Ed. Ildikó Veres. Papers of the international conference held to commemorate the 75th birthday of Tibor Hanák.

    In his paper Mr. Mészáros provides a historical analysis of the topic what is Hungarian philosophy. Other nations also struggled and still struggle with this issue, and it is the same with Hungarians. In the end he even suggests a solution to this issue.


  • Czeglédi Katalin :
    A földrajzi nevek és a szkíta-hun nyelv39 [3.57 MB - PDF]EPA-00007-00036-0100

    Geographical names and the Scytho-Hunnish language

    Recently a new book of the famous linguist Uchiraltu was published in Hungary, translated by Borbála Obrusánszky. In that book the author examined the remaining Hunnish word list. This method and its results fully support the more than three decades long research of Ms. Czeglédi, who focuses het attention, among others, to the (geographical) names in the Volga-Ural region. These results, plus additional archaeological and other evidences prove that the so-called Finno-Ugric theory is unfounded and fundamentally wrong. The Volga-Ural region was inhabited by Scythians, Huns, real people who left their footprints, among others, in the geographical names of that region.

  • Mellár Mihály :
    A minoszi Lineáris A írás megfejtése64 [3.57 MB - PDF]EPA-00007-00036-0120

    Linear A deciphered

    Paper published unabridged in English in Journal of Eurasian Studies (http://www.federatio.org/joes.html) Volume I., Issue 2. April-June 2009, pp. 98-119.

  • Obrusánszky Borbála :

    Parallels of Hungarian historical traditions in Inner-Asian sources

    In recent years several major discoveries were made that shed light on the ancient history of the peoples of Inner-Asia. Archaeological discoveries in Russia, Mongolia and China, analysis of Chinese chronicles and the research of ancient Turkish and Mongolian folk poetry greatly enhanced our understanding of the unique culture of the ancient peoples of the steppe. These discoveries could help us to shed light to several unsolved issues of the ancient history of the Hungarians.

    The author concentrates in this paper on the most important issue of the ancient Hungarian political body, namely the founding of the Hungarian State. This event is well-known from different angles; nevertheless, there is no unified analysis of this event. Ms. Obrusánszky focuses her attention on the Blood-Oath, in the light of similar tradition at Inner-Asian peoples.

Civilizációs kitekintő

  • Csornai Katalin :
    A dunhuangi sziklatemplom manicheus kézirattekercsei78 [3.57 MB - PDF]EPA-00007-00036-0140

    Manichean manuscripts of the rock temple of Dunhuang

    In 2009 the HUN-Idea publishing house of Gábor Csaba Kárpáti, published the Hungarian translation of Manichean manuscripts of the rock temple of Dunhuang. This is the first time that these holy scripts are translated into Hungarian directly from original Chinese. The translation has been done by Katalin Csornai. Present text is the Introduction to the texts, written also by Katalin Csornai.

  • Farkas Flórián :
    Mirza — egy perzsa krónikás a poldereken88en [3.57 MB - PDF]EPA-00007-00036-0150

    Mirza — a persian chronicler on the Polders

    Paper published unabridged in English in Journal of Eurasian Studies (http://www.federatio.org/joes.html) Volume I., Issue 2. April-June 2009, pp. 148-157.

Geostratégiai és világgazdasági kitekintő

  • Demeter M. Attila ,
    Tonk Márton :

    The system of norms of minority protection in the European Union

    Paper published unabridged in English in Journal of Eurasian Studies (http://www.federatio.org/joes.html) Volume I., Issue 2. April-June 2009, pp. 121-129. Here we only publish the conclusions of the paper.

    Present paper is based on another, more extensive study, entitled: The Approach of National/Ethnic Minority Issues in the EU, which had summarised the results of a one-year research. Due to space limitations we can practically only concentrate in this paper on the conclusions of that study, more precisely on a part of its conclusions.


    The fact that European organisations did not base their actions on the principles laid down in their own minority protection documents during their case by case military or diplomatic interventions does not mean that these interventions lacked proper consideration, yet these were not based on the values of federalism and territorial autonomy, but were rather simple security policy considerations. What we could see in fact during the nineties was that European organisations have always measured the situation of minorities with double standards, and this can also be observed in their monitoring activity: they followed in part whether these states met minority protection norms, but also watched whether they endangered regional peace and security, paying extra attention to the countries where minority problems could represent a potential source for conflict. The most important body of this double standard monitoring has been the High Commissioner on National Minorities of the OSCE.

    The shaping of the problem of national minorities as an international problem therefore was not only influenced by the principles of right protection included in international minority protection documents, but also by security policy viewpoints, and these usually outweighed the first ones by far, whenever decisions had to be taken about Western military or diplomatic intervention. And whenever Western organisations eventually intervened in the ethnic conflicts of the post-communist area, they always exceeded by far the rights stipulated by the Framework Convention, recognising that these rights are helpful only to a very small degree when trying to solve ethnic conflicts. Interventions always took place on considerations of realpolitik, and had little to do with the principles of minority rights protection.

    More than that, Western organisations approached the issue of territorial autonomy differently, and this different approach was rooted again in considerations of realpolitik and security policy. For instance, as we could see earlier, CSCE/OSCE in 1990 in Copenhagen had expressly recommended territorial autonomy, while later clearly denied the rights of Hungarians in Slovakia for autonomy. At the same time, the OSCE supported autonomy in other countries, such as Ukraine for example (the autonomy of Crimea), Moldova (the autonomy of Transnistria and of the autonomy of the Gagauz people), Georgia (the autonomy of Abkhazia and Southern Ossetia), Azerbaijan (the autonomy of Nagorno-Karabakh) and Serbia (the autonomy of Kosovo). The OSCE justified its support for autonomy in these countries stating that these cases had been „exceptional” and „atypical”. In reality the only thing that made these cases exceptional was that the respective minorities had earlier acquired power in those regions, by specifically anti-constitutional means. If the concerning states had decided to deprive these minorities of their territorial autonomy, this would have inevitably led to regional instability, something the OSCE wanted to avoid. Then again, where minorities resorted to peaceful and democratic means to achieve autonomy, the OSCE resisted against their aspirations, reasoning that they seek to destabilise the situation and create tensions.

    Conclusively, the attitude of Western organisations toward minority problems can with even the most of indulgence be qualified as ambiguous. When in the early nineties international organisations tried to bring the problems of national minorities under international regulations and norms, they hoped that it would be possible to frame the relationships between the states and their respective minorities into some sort of constructive co-operation. In view of this it is quite difficult to tell today, what messages the alternative minority protection strategies convey toward states and their minorities: the political mobilisation of minorities are at the same time encouraged and held back by the efforts of European organisations, they simultaneously propagate and dispute the values of Western federalism and autonomies, and the legitimacy of special minority rights is declared and dismissed concurrently.

  • Sulyok Vince: Vázlatosan a dán irodalomról73 [3.57 MB - PDF]EPA-00007-00036-0170

    On Danish literature — in a nutshell

    This essay concludes an anthology of contemporary Danish poetry. Vince Sulyok made a selection from the oeuvre of 16 contemporary Danish poets and translated a large number of poems into Hungarian. The volume was originally published in traditional form by the Széphalom Könyvműhely publishing house in 2002. Mikes International published it electronically in 2009.



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