Animal and in vitro experiments
Abstract: Objective: To evaluate in-vivo and in-vitro effects of ferulic acid (FA) on glucocorticoid-induced osteoarthritis (GIO) to establish its possible underlying mechanisms. Methods: The effects of FA on cell proliferation, cell viability (MTT assay), ALP activity, and mineralization assay, and oxidative stress markers (ROS, SOD, GSH LDH and MDA levels) were investigated by MC3T3-E1 cell line. Wistar rats received standard saline (control group) or dexamethasone (GC, 2 mg⁻¹ kg) or DEXþFA (50 and 100mg⁻¹ kg) orally for 8 weeks. Bone density, micro-architecture, bio-mechanics, bone turnover markers and histo-morphology were determined. The expression of OPG, RANKL, osteogenic markers, and other signalling proteins was assessed employing quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting. Results: The findings indicated the elevation of ALP mRNA expressions, osteogenic markers (Runx-2, OSX, Col-I, and OSN), and the b-Catenin, Lrp-5 and GSK-3b protein expressions. FA showed the potential to increase MC3T3-E1 cell differentiation, proliferation, and mineralization. FA increased oxidative stress markers (SOD, MDA, and GSH) while decreasing ROS levels and lactate dehydrogenase release in GIO rats. The OPG/RANKL mRNA expression ratio was increased by FA, followed by improved GSK-3b and ERK phosphorylation with enhanced mRNA expressions of Lrp-5 and b-catenin. Conclusion: These findings showed that FA improved osteoblasts proliferation with oxidative stress suppression by controlling the Lrp-5/GSK-3b/ERK pathway in GIO, demonstrating the potential pathways involved in the mechanism of actions of FA in GIO therapy.
Keywords: ferulic acid, osteoporosis, glucocorticoids, osteoblast, oxidative injury
Abstract: Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging global chronic liver disease worldwide. Considering the powerful association between NAFLD, insulin resistance (IR) and obesity, as well as the key role of ghrelin in these metabolic disorders, we hypothesized that some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the ghrelin (GHRL) and ghrelin receptor (GHSR) genes might be associated with NAFLD. Methods: We conducted a case-control retrospective study of 150 cases with biopsyproven NAFLD and 155 controls. The diagnosis of NAFLD was established before the start of the genotyping process. All the 305 subjects were genotyped for GHRL SNP rs26802 or -501T>G and GHSR SNP rs572169 or Arg159Arg using the PCR-RFLP method. Results: The GHRL rs26802 “GG” genotype compared with the “TT” genotype and “TTþTG” genotype appears to be a marker of decreased NAFLD susceptibility even after adjustment for confounding factors (P 5 0.006; OR 5 0.14, 95% CI 5 0.03- 0.56 and P 5 0.003; OR 5 0.16, 95% CI 5 0.05-0.53, respectively). However, we observed no significant difference in genotype or allele frequencies between the cases and controls for GHSR SNP rs572169. Conclusions: These findings proposed, for the first time, that the GHRL rs26802 “GG” genotype has a protective effect against NAFLD. Nonetheless, this observation warrants further investigations in other populations.
Keywords: ghrelin, GHRL, GHSR, NAFLD, obesity, SNP
Abstract: Background: Older adults with mild cognitive impairment (OAwMCI) present subtle balance and gait deficits along with subjective memory decline. Although these presentations might not affect activities of daily living (ADLs), they attribute to a two-folded increase in falls. While changes occurring in volitional balance control during ADLs have been extensively examined among OAwMCI, reactive balance control, required to recover from external perturbations, has received little attention. Therefore, this study examined reactive balance control in OAwMCI compared to their healthy counterparts. Methods: Fifteen older adults with mild cognitive impairment (OAwMCI), fifteen cognitively intact older adults (CIOA) (>55 years), and fifteen young adults (18-30 years) were exposed to stance perturbations at three different intensities. Behavioral outcomes postural COM state stability, step length, step initiation, and step execution were computed. Results: Postural COM state stability was the lowest in OAwMCI compared to CIOA and young adults, and it deteriorated at higher perturbation intensities (P < 0.001). Step length was the lowest among OAwMCI and was significantly different from young adults (P < 0.001) but not from CIOA. Unlike OAwMCI, CIOA and young adults increased their step length at higher perturbation intensities (P < 0.001). OAwMCI showed longer recovery step initiation times and shorter execution times compared to CIOA and young adults at higher perturbation intensities (P < 0.001). Conclusion: OAwMCI exhibit exacerbated reactive instability and are unable to modulate their responses as the threat to balance control altered. Thus, they are at a significantly higher risk of falls than their healthy counterparts.
Keywords: falls-risk, slip-perturbation, Alzheimer’s related dementia (ADRD), compensatory stepping responses, scaling
Abstract: Objective: The aim of the present study was to analyse the relationships between creatine kinase (CK) concentration, an indirect marker of muscle damage, and global positioning system (GPS)-derived metrics of a continuous two-week-long preseason training period in elite football. Design: Twenty-one elite male professional soccer players were assessed during a 14-day preseason preparatory period. CK concentrations were determined each morning, and a GPS system was used to quantify the external load. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) model was established to determine the extent to which the external load parameter explained post-training CK levels. Results: The GEE model found that higher numbers of decelerations (χ2 5 7.83, P 5 0.005) were most strongly associated with the post-training CK level. Decelerations and accelerations accounted for 62% and 11% of the post-training CK level, respectively, and considerable interindividual variability existed in the data. Conclusion: The use of GPS to predict muscle damage could be of use to coaches and practitioners in prescribing recovery practices. Based on GPS data, more individualized strategies could be devised and could potentially result in better subsequent performance.
Keywords: creatine kinase, preseason, external load, generalized estimating equations, football
Abstract: The perturbation of adipokinetic hormones, such as irisin, chemerin, and asprosin has been reported to participate in pathological conditions (e.g., insulin resistance) and chronic inflammation. However, exercise training has been long established as an effective intervention for prevention and treatment of these chronic and metabolic diseases. This study was to examine the effects of aerobic continuous training (ACT) and aerobic interval training (AIT) on irisin and chemerin levels of liver tissue (LT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), circulating asprosin, and their relationships with cardiometabolic risk factors in rats with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four equal groups: normal control (N-Ctr), control (Ctr-MetS), ACT, and AIT. After familiarization, rats with exercise intervention performed either ACT or AIT five times a week over eight weeks. The level of irisin in both ACT and AIT groups was higher than the Ctr-MetS group in LT and VAT, with a greater improvement of LT level observed in AIT vs. ACT groups. Furthermore, the level of chemerin in LT and VAT was lower in both ACT and AIT groups than the Ctr-MetS group, whereas only AIT group exhibited a reduction of serum asprosin when compared to ACT and Ctr-MetS, along with the improvements of cardiometabolic markers, such as HOMA-IR and lipid profile. These findings may support the efficiency and effectiveness of AIT intervention in the modulation of these novel metabolic hormones and cardiometabolic risk factors for reduced risk of metabolic syndrome.
Keywords: exercise, aerobic continuous training, aerobic interval training, adipokinetic hormones, metabolic syndrome