Abstract: Exposure to enriched environment (EE) is known to promote sensory, cognitive, and motor stimulation with intensified levels of novelty and complexity. In this study, we investigated the positive regulatory effect of short-term exposure to EE on establishing functional recovery in monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced obese rats. Unless treated, MSG rats exhibited peripheral insulin resistance, cognitive deficits, and a reduction in the total hippocampal volume with decreased neuron count in the DG, CA3, and CA1 subfields. These MSG rats were exposed to shortterm EE for 15 days for a period of 6 h/day, beginning either at 45 or at 75 days of age. EE exposure has improved insulin sensitivity, yielded a significant increase in total hippocampal volume along with increase in neuron number in the CA1 subfield of the hippocampus in both age groups. However, as assessed by radial arm maze task, which relies upon the positive reinforcement to test spatial memory, and the Barnes maze task, which utilizes an aversive learning strategy, a complete recovery of cognitive function could be achieved in 2-month-old rats only and not among 3-month-old rats, thus highlighting the importance of critical window period for EE interventions in restoring the memory functions. These results suggest the therapeutic potential of EE paradigm in prevention of cognitive disorders.
Keywords: radial arm maze, barnes maze, hippocampus, spatial memory
Abstract: This study was aimed to analyze the effect of two different megadoses of α-tocopherol (vit E) in the antioxidant activity and red and white blood series of Wistar rats after a 180-min ultraendurance probe. Three groups of 10 rats were analyzed; VEAG: acute administration of a megadoses of 5,000 IU/kg of vit E the day before the probe; VECG: chronic administration of 1,000 IU/kg/day of vit E for 6 days before the probe; CG: placebo administration. VEAG presented white cells, red blood cells, hematocrit, hemoglobin values significantly higher than CG and VECG (p < 0.05). The mean corpuscular hemoglobin and lymphocytes concentrations were significantly higher in the VECG than in the other two groups (p < 0.05). Similarly, VEAG presented a significantly higher vit E blood concentration than VECG and CG (p < 0.05), and VECG than CG (p < 0.05). Finally, we found a significantly positive correlation between trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and red blood cells concentration (r = 0.374) and a significantly inverse correlation between TEAC and blood lactate concentration (r = −0.365). Our findings suggest that acute vit E megadoses could protect against transitory sport anemia symptoms and increase the white blood cell count in comparison with the chronic dose and control groups after an ultraendurance probe.
Keywords: vitamin E, ultraendurance, antioxidant capacity, sport anemia, wistar rat, white blood cell, red blood cell, running performance
Abstract: In this study, we aimed to observe whether curcumin (cur), a polyphenolic compound derived from the dietary spice turmeric, a yellow substance obtained from the root of the plant Curcuma longa Linn, has any protective effect against blue light irradiation in human retinal pigment epithelium (ARPE-19) cells. For this purpose, we evaluated the intracellular calcium release mechanism, poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP), procaspase-3/-9 protein expression levels, caspase activation, and reactive oxygen species levels. ARPE-19 cells were divided into four main groups, such as control, cur, blue light, and cur + blue light. Results were evaluated by Kruskal– Wallis and Mann–Whitney U tests as post hoc tests. The cells in cur and cur + blue light samples were incubated with 20 μM cur. Blue light exposure was performed for 24 h in an incubator. Lipid peroxidation and cytosolicfree Ca2+ [Ca2+]i concentrations were higher in the blue light exposure samples than in the control samples; however, their levels were determined as significantly lower in the cur and cur + blue light exposure samples than in the blue light samples alone. PARP and procaspase-3 levels were significantly higher in blue light samples. Cur administration significantly decreased PARP and procaspase-3 expression levels. Reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase values were lower in the blue light exposure samples, although they were higher in the cur and cur + blue light exposure samples. Caspase-3 and -9 activities were lower in the cur samples than in the blue light samples. Moreover, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels were significantly higher in the blue light exposure samples. In conclusion, cur strongly induced regulatory effects on oxidative stress, intracellular Ca2+ levels, VEGF levels, PARP expression levels, and caspase-3 and -9 values in an experimental oxidative stress model in ARPE-19 cells.
Keywords: apoptosis, ARPE-19 cells, blue light damage, Ca2+ signaling, curcumin, oxidative stress
Abstract: This study examined the aging effect on disuse muscle atrophy prevention using heat stress. Wistar rats aged 7 and 60 weeks were divided into three groups as follows: control, immobilized (Im), and immobilized and heat stressed (ImH). Heat stress was given by immersing the hindlimbs in hot water (42 °C) for 60 min, once in every 3 days and the gastrocnemius (GAS) and soleus (SOL) muscles were extracted after 14 days. Muscle-fiber types were classified using ATPase staining. Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was assessed through Western blotting. In GAS muscle of both groups and SOL muscle of 7-week-old rats, the fiber diameter of each muscle type in the ImH group significantly increased compared with that in the Im group. However, this could not be observed in the SOL muscle of the 60-week-old rats. The increased percentage of type-I fibers and variability of types I and II muscle-fiber diameter were evident in the SOL muscle of the 60-week rats. HSP70 was significantly elevated in the ImH group compared with in the Im group in both muscle types of both age groups. Thus, effectiveness of heat stress in the prevention of disuse muscle atrophy appears unsatisfactory in aging muscle fibers.
Keywords: aging, disuse muscle atrophy, heat stress, heat shock protein 70, gastrocnemius, soleus
Abstract: Introduction: Despite an increase in the number of cadaver donors and overall organ transplantations, the dramatic increase in the waiting list makes it necessary to reconsider donor criteria. The authors wanted to examine whether differences could exist in the function and/or morphology of transplanted kidneys originated from expanded criteria donors (ECDs) and ideal donors 1 and 5 years after transplantation. Methods: Kidney function and histopathologic findings were analyzed and compared 1 and 5 years after transplantation in 97 patients having ECD kidneys and in 178 patients who received ideal donor kidneys (IDK). Results: Serum creatinine level was significantly higher (p = 0.001) and estimated glomerular filtration rate was significantly lower (p = 0.003) in patients having ECD kidneys as compared with those with IDK 5 years after transplantation. Morphological changes in the transplanted kidneys, such as tubulitis (p = 0.025) and interstitial inflammation (p = 0.002), were significantly more frequently present in patients with ECD kidneys than in those with IDK 1 year after transplantation. Conclusion: Despite an absence of differences in kidney function 1 year after kidney transplantation between patients having ECD and IDK, morphological differences in the transplanted kidneys can be detected between the two groups of patients.
Keywords: expanded criteria donor kidney, ideal donor kidney, kidney transplantation, Banff score
Abstract: Purpose: This study aims to compare the impact of active allergic rhinitis on physical and cognitive abilities of trained allergic athletes to untrained allergic patients. Methods: Cognitive, respiratory, and fitness functions were assessed before and after allergen exposure. Participants in both groups were provoked intranasally with ragweed allergen. Results: The group of athletes revealed significantly higher average values in peak inspiratory flow and fitness index before and after provocation. In neuropsychological assessments, athletes performed significantly better after allergen provocation in complex working memory capacity. Due to single acute allergen exposure, the size of the nasal cavity and nasal inspiratory peak flow significantly decreased in both groups. The physical performance of both groups did not change after provocation. Executive functions and complex working memory capacity of athletes significantly improved resulting from provocation. Conclusions: A single-shot allergen in high dose might cause an increase in mental concentration, which was more pronounced in the group of athletes. This study indicates that acute exposure to allergen cannot affect the physical performance and may result in increased mental focus in patients with allergy notwithstanding the declining respiratory functions.
Keywords: allergic rhinitis, cognitive function, nasal allergen provocation, physical fitness, respiratory function
Abstract: Aim: To investigate the effects of 3-month-long specific training program on biochemical status, oxidative and antioxidant responses in elite karatekas. Methods: Twenty male karatekas [BMI: 21.9 ± 2.4 (kg/m2)] participated in this study. They performed a 3-month specific training to prepare for an international competition. We measured selected biochemical parameters, the oxidative and antioxidant responses before (T0) and after 3 months of intense karate training (T1). Results: We found significant increases in catalase activity (26.3% ± 21.3%, p < 0.0005), superoxide dismutase activity (15.9% ± 28.8%, p < 0.05), and a significant decrease in malondialdehyde levels (17.2% ± 13.7%, p < 0.0005) after 3 months of karate training. Moreover, the athletes’ biochemical status was significantly improved at T1 compared with T0 (for the majority of parameters, p < 0.0005). Conclusions: The specific training program improves the prooxidant–antioxidant balance of elite karate athletes. It could be recommended for athletes having similar physical fitness level.
Keywords: oxidative stress, balance prooxidant–antioxidant, free radicals, muscular damage, inflammatory enzymes, athletes, martial arts, training