On the motivation, characteristic traits and application of semiotic textology
This paper is based on the author's inaugural lecture delivered at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and is composed of four large thematic units: 1. Interpretation of the notions 'verbal text' and 'carriers of textuality in a verbal passage'. – 2. The properties of verbal passages and the disciplinary environment of research concerned with the analysis of their structure. – 3. Motivation of the term 'semiotic textology' and characteristic traits of the discipline it refers to. – 4. The application of semiotic textology in analysing the structure of multimedia texts. – The paper discusses the nature of text-centric semiotic research and the status it has among the various disciplines, and concludes by listing some upcoming tasks of research in semiotic textology.
Stylistic trends in the first period of Nyugat
The author of this paper tries to answer the question of whether Hungarian literature at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries did or did not have some dominant style. On the basis of parallels coming from contemporary world literature, three main trends of the time are normally discerned: symbolism, impressionism, and art nouveau. However, these are not stylistic periods but merely intertwined tendencies of stylistic development. How does the style of classical modernity, brought to perfection with the journal Nyugat, differ from earlier and later styles? Proceeding linguistic level by linguistic level, the author makes the following claims. After the turn of the century, versification becomes more variegated; the dominance of mechanical iambs comes to an end. The width and depth of vocabulary drawn upon increases markedly, and the traditional distinction between 'poetic' and 'non-poetic' words begins to dissolve. Representatives of the new style exploit the possibilities of associating words with one another by creating audaciously innovative phrases, especially adjective–noun constructions (oxymora, enallages). In terms of syntax, the main trend is the slackening or even disintegration of compact sentence structure. The most frequently employed figures involve repetition or stacked constituents.
Possessive clauses in Middle Hungarian
This paper is a draft chapter from the forthcoming Middle Hungarian volume of A Historical Grammar of Hungarian. Its material is based on large-scale data collection. Guided by the objectives of the larger project, it takes stock of the inventory of syntactic constructions involving possessive subordinate clauses that occur in texts written between the first one-third of the sixteenth century and 1772, and discusses changes and tendencies in the grammatical structure of those constructions. The author explores 'partial explicative' clauses (introduced by relative pronouns) and 'essential explicative' clauses (introduced by the conjunction hogy 'that'), as well as conditional clauses (introduced by ha 'if'). In analysing heads, antecedents, conjunctions, and word order, she makes functional observations concerning the general properties of those constructions and their use in the period investigated.
On formal and semantic properties of preverb-verb combinations involving fel 'up', le 'down' and other preverbs
This paper discusses the two Hungarian preverbs mentioned in the title, intending to contribute to the description of synonymous functions of preverbs in general. First, formal and semantic peculiarities of those two preverbs are explored on the basis of data from A magyar nyelv értelmez. szótára [Hungarian Defining Dictionary] and their functions are compared to those of some other preverbs. On the basis of that comparison, the author defines four main semantic relationships between preverbverb combinations involving fel or le and those involving one of the preverbs meg [perfectiviser], el 'away', ki 'out', be 'in', össze 'together', szét 'apart', végig 'along' that can be seen as synonymous with them. Thus, different choice of preverb may result in (a) different visual representations (felbukik 'tumble over' vs. kibukik 'tumble out'), (b) different Aktionsarts, or rather, different degrees of accomplishment (lel. 'shoot [dead]' vs. megl. 'shoot, wound by shooting'), (c) different degrees of the bleaching of directional meaning (lekókad 'droop' vs. elkókad 'wither'), and (d) perfective actions/events of different starting points (le.röl 'grind [whole quantity of sg]' vs. meg.röl 'grind [fully]').
The localization of a 13th-century chapel of hermits: Idegs˙t Beatae Elizabeth. An analysis of séd 'creek' and kút 'spring, well'
The subject-matter of the present paper is the localization of a hermits' chapel mentioned as Idegs˙t Beatae Elizabeth in a diploma issued by Paul, bishop of Veszprém in the year 1263. The author concludes that it must have been located in the area of the present-day village Hidegkút in Veszprém County. Besides some archaeological and topographical arguments, the identification rests mainly on a linguistic analysis of the place names Hidegséd and Hidegkút. The author lists several examples for the word séd 'creek'. The names of three different settlements appear in the forms Hidegséd, Hidegseg and Hidegkút in the 13th to 16th centuries. Both present-day kút 'well' and old Hungarian seg possessed the meaning 'spring' formerly. This last observation disproves the 140-yearold idea, repeatedly emphasised in the literature, that all Hidegség place names originate from Hidegséd as the result of a folk-etymological process. The author's conclusion is that settlements located near a cold-water creek may have been named after either the creek or its source, yielding name forms like Hidegséd, Hidegseg or Hidegkút.
Szó- és szólásmagyarázatok